The rind acts as a protective barrier for internally-bacterial ripened cheeses. Unlike surface-inoculated smear cheeses, centripetal maturation is not assumed to occur in these cheeses. This research was aimed to evaluate the microbial diversity of the wooden shelves used for the ripening of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) Pecorino di Filiano and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Canestrato di Moliterno cheeses. The microorganisms associated with the rind of these cheeses were also investigated. Both wooden shelf surfaces and cheese rinds were sampled by brushing method to collect their biofilms. Wooden shelves showed levels of total mesophilic microorganisms (TMM) between 5.6 and 7.2 log CFU/cm2, while cheese rinds between 6.1 and 7.8 log CFU/cm2. The major dairy pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) were never detected, while mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria dominated the surfaces of all wooden shelves and cheese rinds. LAB community was represented by Enterococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Marinilactibacillus spp. Among yeasts, Debaryomyces spp., Candida spp., were identified, while Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp., dominated the community of filamentous fungi. MiSeq Illumina analysis identified 15 phyla, 13 classes, 28 orders, 54 families, and 56 genera among bacteria. Staphylococcus spp. was identified from all wooden surfaces, with a maximum abundance of 71 %. Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and halophilic bacteria were detected in almost all samples. Regarding fungi, wooden shelves mainly hosted Aspergillus, Penicillium and Debaryomyces hansenii, while cheese rinds especially Penicillium and D. hansenii. Alpha diversity confirmed a strict correlation between the microbiota of wooden shelves and that of cheese rinds for the majority of factories. This study confirmed that the wooden shelves used for cheese ripening are microbiologically active and represent safe systems. Furthermore, the results of this work clarified the transfer flow between wooden shelves and PDO Pecorino di Filiano and PGI Canestrato di Moliterno cheese surfaces: smear-active microorganisms are mainly transferred from wooden shelves to cheese rind, which potentially contribute to the development of the final organoleptic characteristics; meanwhile, cheeses transfer LAB that are potentially involved in defining the safety aspects of the shelves.

Gabriele Busetta, Giuliana Garofalo, Salvatore Claps, Maria Teresa Sardina, Elena Franciosi, Antonio Alfonzo, et al. (2024). The wooden shelf surface and cheese rind mutually exchange microbiota during the traditional ripening process. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 409 [10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2023.110478].

The wooden shelf surface and cheese rind mutually exchange microbiota during the traditional ripening process

Gabriele Busetta;Giuliana Garofalo;Maria Teresa Sardina;Antonio Alfonzo;Nicola Francesca;Giancarlo Moschetti;Luca Settanni
;
Raimondo Gaglio
2024-01-16

Abstract

The rind acts as a protective barrier for internally-bacterial ripened cheeses. Unlike surface-inoculated smear cheeses, centripetal maturation is not assumed to occur in these cheeses. This research was aimed to evaluate the microbial diversity of the wooden shelves used for the ripening of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) Pecorino di Filiano and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) Canestrato di Moliterno cheeses. The microorganisms associated with the rind of these cheeses were also investigated. Both wooden shelf surfaces and cheese rinds were sampled by brushing method to collect their biofilms. Wooden shelves showed levels of total mesophilic microorganisms (TMM) between 5.6 and 7.2 log CFU/cm2, while cheese rinds between 6.1 and 7.8 log CFU/cm2. The major dairy pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) were never detected, while mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria dominated the surfaces of all wooden shelves and cheese rinds. LAB community was represented by Enterococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Marinilactibacillus spp. Among yeasts, Debaryomyces spp., Candida spp., were identified, while Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp., dominated the community of filamentous fungi. MiSeq Illumina analysis identified 15 phyla, 13 classes, 28 orders, 54 families, and 56 genera among bacteria. Staphylococcus spp. was identified from all wooden surfaces, with a maximum abundance of 71 %. Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and halophilic bacteria were detected in almost all samples. Regarding fungi, wooden shelves mainly hosted Aspergillus, Penicillium and Debaryomyces hansenii, while cheese rinds especially Penicillium and D. hansenii. Alpha diversity confirmed a strict correlation between the microbiota of wooden shelves and that of cheese rinds for the majority of factories. This study confirmed that the wooden shelves used for cheese ripening are microbiologically active and represent safe systems. Furthermore, the results of this work clarified the transfer flow between wooden shelves and PDO Pecorino di Filiano and PGI Canestrato di Moliterno cheese surfaces: smear-active microorganisms are mainly transferred from wooden shelves to cheese rind, which potentially contribute to the development of the final organoleptic characteristics; meanwhile, cheeses transfer LAB that are potentially involved in defining the safety aspects of the shelves.
16-gen-2024
Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria
Settore AGR/17 - Zootecnica Generale E Miglioramento Genetico
Gabriele Busetta, Giuliana Garofalo, Salvatore Claps, Maria Teresa Sardina, Elena Franciosi, Antonio Alfonzo, et al. (2024). The wooden shelf surface and cheese rind mutually exchange microbiota during the traditional ripening process. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 409 [10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2023.110478].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/617894
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