The present study hypothesizes that raw materials used in bread making can transfer antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to processed breads. Four types of flour and four types of semolina were purchased from supermarkets and inoculated with a commercial dried sourdough starter to make breads. The microbiological characteristics of all raw materials and fermented doughs were investigated. The levels of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased up to 107 CFU/g. The values of pH decreased to 4.54–4.86 while total titratable acidity increased inversely. All unprocessed and processed samples, including breads, were analyzed by a molecular approach to detect bacterial and fungal DNAs and 17 antibiotic resistance genes for penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol. Illumina technology showed that the operational taxonomy units (OTUs) identified from unprocessed wheat milling products, fermented doughs, and baked products mainly belonged to Acetobacteraceae. Enterococci were present in all doughs. After baking, the relative abundance (RA)% of Enterococcus and Acetobacteraceae decreased. The DNA analyzed for fungal composition showed that Kazachstania humilis dominated dried sourdough starter and doughs, and its OTUs were also detected at high RA% in baked products. The search for ARGs revealed that all samples analyzed did not show resistance to penicillins, chloramphenicol, and macrolides. However, three of the semolinas included in this study (S1, S3 and S4) and the corresponding doughs (SD1, SD3 and SD4) were positive for tet(A) and tet(B) resistance genes. This work indicated that breads have a limited role in the dissemination of ARGs.

Gargano V., Gambino D., Viola E., Franciosi E., Alfonzo A., Cicero L., et al. (2024). Tracking the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from raw materials to sourdough breads. FOOD BIOSCIENCE, 57 [10.1016/j.fbio.2023.103478].

Tracking the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from raw materials to sourdough breads

Viola E.;Alfonzo A.;Settanni L.
;
Gaglio R.
2024-01-01

Abstract

The present study hypothesizes that raw materials used in bread making can transfer antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to processed breads. Four types of flour and four types of semolina were purchased from supermarkets and inoculated with a commercial dried sourdough starter to make breads. The microbiological characteristics of all raw materials and fermented doughs were investigated. The levels of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased up to 107 CFU/g. The values of pH decreased to 4.54–4.86 while total titratable acidity increased inversely. All unprocessed and processed samples, including breads, were analyzed by a molecular approach to detect bacterial and fungal DNAs and 17 antibiotic resistance genes for penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol. Illumina technology showed that the operational taxonomy units (OTUs) identified from unprocessed wheat milling products, fermented doughs, and baked products mainly belonged to Acetobacteraceae. Enterococci were present in all doughs. After baking, the relative abundance (RA)% of Enterococcus and Acetobacteraceae decreased. The DNA analyzed for fungal composition showed that Kazachstania humilis dominated dried sourdough starter and doughs, and its OTUs were also detected at high RA% in baked products. The search for ARGs revealed that all samples analyzed did not show resistance to penicillins, chloramphenicol, and macrolides. However, three of the semolinas included in this study (S1, S3 and S4) and the corresponding doughs (SD1, SD3 and SD4) were positive for tet(A) and tet(B) resistance genes. This work indicated that breads have a limited role in the dissemination of ARGs.
2024
Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria
Gargano V., Gambino D., Viola E., Franciosi E., Alfonzo A., Cicero L., et al. (2024). Tracking the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from raw materials to sourdough breads. FOOD BIOSCIENCE, 57 [10.1016/j.fbio.2023.103478].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
209.FB-Antimicrobial Genes Sourdough.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale
Dimensione 1.85 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.85 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/621740
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact