Almond production generates large amounts of by-products rich in polyphenols. In this study, almond skin was explored as a valuable food ingredient in bread making. To this purpose, almond skin was used to produce functional products modifying a traditional sourdough bread recipe. The doughs were prepared replacing semolina with powdered almond skin (PAS) at 5 and 10 % (w/w). Sourdough inoculum was started with a mix of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and propagated in semolina until reaching pH 3.7. The pH of PAS added breads was higher than that of control (CTR) breads before and after fermentation. Plate counts showed a similar evolution of LAB and total mesophilic microorganisms, but members of Enterobacteriaceae and coliform were detectable in PAS doughs. Illumina data clearly showed a dominance of lactobacilli in all trials, but PAS doughs displayed the presence of Bacillus. The final bread characteristics were influenced by PAS and its addition percentage; in particular, crust and crumb colour resulted darker, the alveolation decreased and, regarding sensory attributes, odour intensity increased, while bread odour diminished. In presence of PAS, bread emissions were characterized by lower percentages of alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher percentages of the other volatile compound classes, especially terpenoids like β-pinene, β-myrcene and limonene than CTR trial. After in vitro simulated digestion, the final release of phytochemicals from 10 % PAS bread was almost 100 %. Thus, PAS determined an increase of the antioxidant capacity of the breads. Phytochemicals released from digested PAS-fortified bread can provide antioxidant protection in a complex biological environment such as human intestinal-like cells. Besides the positive functional properties of PAS, this work also evidenced the hygienic issues of almond skin and, in order to avoid potential risks for the human health, highlighted the need to preserve its microbiological characteristics during storage for their reuse in bread production.

Gaglio R., Tesoriere L., Maggio A., Viola E., Attanzio A., Frazzitta A., et al. (2023). Reuse of almond by-products: Functionalization of traditional semolina sourdough bread with almond skin. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 395, 110194 [10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2023.110194].

Reuse of almond by-products: Functionalization of traditional semolina sourdough bread with almond skin

Gaglio R.
Primo
Data Curation
;
Tesoriere L.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Maggio A.
Methodology
;
Viola E.
Formal Analysis
;
Attanzio A.
Validation
;
Frazzitta A.
Formal Analysis
;
Badalamenti N.
Methodology
;
Bruno M.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Moschetti G.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Sottile F.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Settanni L.
Conceptualization
;
Francesca N.
Investigation
2023-03-01

Abstract

Almond production generates large amounts of by-products rich in polyphenols. In this study, almond skin was explored as a valuable food ingredient in bread making. To this purpose, almond skin was used to produce functional products modifying a traditional sourdough bread recipe. The doughs were prepared replacing semolina with powdered almond skin (PAS) at 5 and 10 % (w/w). Sourdough inoculum was started with a mix of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and propagated in semolina until reaching pH 3.7. The pH of PAS added breads was higher than that of control (CTR) breads before and after fermentation. Plate counts showed a similar evolution of LAB and total mesophilic microorganisms, but members of Enterobacteriaceae and coliform were detectable in PAS doughs. Illumina data clearly showed a dominance of lactobacilli in all trials, but PAS doughs displayed the presence of Bacillus. The final bread characteristics were influenced by PAS and its addition percentage; in particular, crust and crumb colour resulted darker, the alveolation decreased and, regarding sensory attributes, odour intensity increased, while bread odour diminished. In presence of PAS, bread emissions were characterized by lower percentages of alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher percentages of the other volatile compound classes, especially terpenoids like β-pinene, β-myrcene and limonene than CTR trial. After in vitro simulated digestion, the final release of phytochemicals from 10 % PAS bread was almost 100 %. Thus, PAS determined an increase of the antioxidant capacity of the breads. Phytochemicals released from digested PAS-fortified bread can provide antioxidant protection in a complex biological environment such as human intestinal-like cells. Besides the positive functional properties of PAS, this work also evidenced the hygienic issues of almond skin and, in order to avoid potential risks for the human health, highlighted the need to preserve its microbiological characteristics during storage for their reuse in bread production.
mar-2023
Settore AGR/03 - Arboricoltura Generale E Coltivazioni Arboree
Gaglio R., Tesoriere L., Maggio A., Viola E., Attanzio A., Frazzitta A., et al. (2023). Reuse of almond by-products: Functionalization of traditional semolina sourdough bread with almond skin. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, 395, 110194 [10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2023.110194].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/587130
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