Open-vent volcanic activity is typically sustained by ascent and degassing of shallow magma, in which the rate of magma supply to the upper feeding system largely exceeds the rate of magma eruption. Such unbalance between supplied (input) and erupted (output) magma rates is thought to result from steady, degassing-driven, convective magma overturning in a shallow conduit/feeding dyke. Here, we characterize shallow magma circulation at Stromboli volcano by combining independent observations of heat (Volcanic Radiative Power; via satellite images) and gas (SO2, via UV camera) output in a temporal interval (from August 1, 2018 to April 30, 2020) encompassing the summer 2019 effusive eruption and two paroxysmal explosions (on July 3 and August 28, 2019). We show that, during the phase of ordinary strombolian explosive activity that preceded the 2019 effusive eruption, the average magma input rate (0.1-0.2 m3/s) exceeds the magma eruption rate (0.001-0.01 m3/s) by ∼2 orders of magnitude. Conversely, magma input and output rates converge to an average of ∼0.4 m3/s during the summer 2019 summit effusion, implying an overall suppression of magma recycling back into the feeding system, and hence of excess degassing. We find that, during the effusive eruption, the peak in SO2 emissions lags behind the thermal emission peak by ∼27 days, suggesting that magma output, feeding the lava flow field, initially dominates over magma input in the conduit. We propose that this conduit mass unloading, produced by this initial phase of the effusive eruption, leads to an overall decompression (of up to 30 Pa/s) of the shallow plumbing system, ultimately causing ascent of less-dense, volatile-rich magma batch(es) from depth, enhanced explosive activity, and elevated SO2 fluxes culminating into a paroxysmal explosion on August 28. Our results demonstrate that combined analysis of thermal and SO2 flux time-series paves the way to improved understanding of shallow magmatic system dynamics at open-vent volcanoes, and of the transition from explosive to effusive activity regimes.

Laiolo M., Delle Donne D., Coppola D., Bitetto M., Cigolini C., Della Schiava M., et al. (2022). Shallow magma dynamics at open-vent volcanoes tracked by coupled thermal and SO2 observations. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 594, 117726 [10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117726].

Shallow magma dynamics at open-vent volcanoes tracked by coupled thermal and SO2 observations

Delle Donne D.;Bitetto M.;La Monica F. P.;Aiuppa A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Open-vent volcanic activity is typically sustained by ascent and degassing of shallow magma, in which the rate of magma supply to the upper feeding system largely exceeds the rate of magma eruption. Such unbalance between supplied (input) and erupted (output) magma rates is thought to result from steady, degassing-driven, convective magma overturning in a shallow conduit/feeding dyke. Here, we characterize shallow magma circulation at Stromboli volcano by combining independent observations of heat (Volcanic Radiative Power; via satellite images) and gas (SO2, via UV camera) output in a temporal interval (from August 1, 2018 to April 30, 2020) encompassing the summer 2019 effusive eruption and two paroxysmal explosions (on July 3 and August 28, 2019). We show that, during the phase of ordinary strombolian explosive activity that preceded the 2019 effusive eruption, the average magma input rate (0.1-0.2 m3/s) exceeds the magma eruption rate (0.001-0.01 m3/s) by ∼2 orders of magnitude. Conversely, magma input and output rates converge to an average of ∼0.4 m3/s during the summer 2019 summit effusion, implying an overall suppression of magma recycling back into the feeding system, and hence of excess degassing. We find that, during the effusive eruption, the peak in SO2 emissions lags behind the thermal emission peak by ∼27 days, suggesting that magma output, feeding the lava flow field, initially dominates over magma input in the conduit. We propose that this conduit mass unloading, produced by this initial phase of the effusive eruption, leads to an overall decompression (of up to 30 Pa/s) of the shallow plumbing system, ultimately causing ascent of less-dense, volatile-rich magma batch(es) from depth, enhanced explosive activity, and elevated SO2 fluxes culminating into a paroxysmal explosion on August 28. Our results demonstrate that combined analysis of thermal and SO2 flux time-series paves the way to improved understanding of shallow magmatic system dynamics at open-vent volcanoes, and of the transition from explosive to effusive activity regimes.
Laiolo M., Delle Donne D., Coppola D., Bitetto M., Cigolini C., Della Schiava M., et al. (2022). Shallow magma dynamics at open-vent volcanoes tracked by coupled thermal and SO2 observations. EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 594, 117726 [10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117726].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/576290
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