Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) shows a significant overlap of symptoms with other hyper-inflammatory diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), but the real difference of the two conditions is still matter of debate. Coronary artery lesions (CAL) are the most relevant complication in KD. Nonetheless, CAL, myocarditis, pericarditis, arrhythmia are the main cardiovascular complications in MIS-C. A close clinical assessment is mandatory, both at the diagnosis and during the follow-up, by ECG and echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) adds important data to ultrasound findings. However, cardiac MRI studies in MIS-C are limited to a small number of cohorts. Methods: We enrolled 20 children (age:1-16 years; 11 F; 9 M) with cardiac involvement secondary to MIS-C, all evaluated by cardiac MRI. Results: 8 children showed pathological cardiac MRI: 2 showed pericardial effusion; 2 showed myocardial oedema; 1 showed aortic insufficiency; 3 showed delayed enhancement (one for acute myocarditis with oedema; 2 for myocardial fibrosis). Delayed enhancement was reduced significantly 5.6-9 months after the first MRI evaluation. 25% of patients with pathological MRI had CAL associated with valvular insufficiency of 2 valves. 17% of patients with normal MRI had CAL, associated with valvular insufficiency of 1 valve in 1 patient. The correlations between haematological, clinical, cardiologic parameters, treatment, did not reach the statistical significance. 4 patients were treated with anakinra. Among those, 2 patients showed a normal cardiac MRI. Cardiac lesions resolved in all the patients during the follow-up. Some patients with pathological cardiac MRI could not underwent a control with MRI, for the low compliance. However, echocardiography and ECG, documented the resolution of the pathological data in these cases. Conclusions: A higher risk of CAL was documented in patients with an association of other cardiac lesions. Cardiac MRI is difficult to perform routinely; however, it is useful for evaluating the acute myocardial damage and the outcome of patients with MIS-C.

Maggio, M.C., Lembo, A., Finazzo, F., Alaimo, A., Benfratello, G.F., Corsello, G. (2024). Cardiovascular involvement in children with COVID-19 temporally related multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C): can cardiac magnetic resonance arrive to the heart of the problem?. THE ITALIAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 50(1) [10.1186/s13052-024-01658-1].

Cardiovascular involvement in children with COVID-19 temporally related multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C): can cardiac magnetic resonance arrive to the heart of the problem?

Maggio, Maria Cristina;Lembo, Alessio;Corsello, Giovanni
2024-05-03

Abstract

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) shows a significant overlap of symptoms with other hyper-inflammatory diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), but the real difference of the two conditions is still matter of debate. Coronary artery lesions (CAL) are the most relevant complication in KD. Nonetheless, CAL, myocarditis, pericarditis, arrhythmia are the main cardiovascular complications in MIS-C. A close clinical assessment is mandatory, both at the diagnosis and during the follow-up, by ECG and echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) adds important data to ultrasound findings. However, cardiac MRI studies in MIS-C are limited to a small number of cohorts. Methods: We enrolled 20 children (age:1-16 years; 11 F; 9 M) with cardiac involvement secondary to MIS-C, all evaluated by cardiac MRI. Results: 8 children showed pathological cardiac MRI: 2 showed pericardial effusion; 2 showed myocardial oedema; 1 showed aortic insufficiency; 3 showed delayed enhancement (one for acute myocarditis with oedema; 2 for myocardial fibrosis). Delayed enhancement was reduced significantly 5.6-9 months after the first MRI evaluation. 25% of patients with pathological MRI had CAL associated with valvular insufficiency of 2 valves. 17% of patients with normal MRI had CAL, associated with valvular insufficiency of 1 valve in 1 patient. The correlations between haematological, clinical, cardiologic parameters, treatment, did not reach the statistical significance. 4 patients were treated with anakinra. Among those, 2 patients showed a normal cardiac MRI. Cardiac lesions resolved in all the patients during the follow-up. Some patients with pathological cardiac MRI could not underwent a control with MRI, for the low compliance. However, echocardiography and ECG, documented the resolution of the pathological data in these cases. Conclusions: A higher risk of CAL was documented in patients with an association of other cardiac lesions. Cardiac MRI is difficult to perform routinely; however, it is useful for evaluating the acute myocardial damage and the outcome of patients with MIS-C.
3-mag-2024
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale E Specialistica
Maggio, M.C., Lembo, A., Finazzo, F., Alaimo, A., Benfratello, G.F., Corsello, G. (2024). Cardiovascular involvement in children with COVID-19 temporally related multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C): can cardiac magnetic resonance arrive to the heart of the problem?. THE ITALIAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 50(1) [10.1186/s13052-024-01658-1].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/635880
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