Background: Antimicrobial resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients is a threat, due to the frequent use of antimicrobial treatment and invasive devices in fragile babies. Since 2014 an active surveillance program of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) carriage has been in place in the five NICUs of Palermo, Italy. In 2017 an increase in the prevalence of MDR-GNB, and in particular of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), was observed in “Civico” hospital NICU. Aim: To assess the impact of a coordinated intervention strategy in achieving long-lasting reduction of MDR-GNB prevalence in the NICU. Methods: Rectal swabs were obtained monthly and processed to detect MDR-GNB using standard methods. MDR-GNB were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Since November 2017 the following intervention measures were applied: (a) two-months intensification of sample collection; (b) stakeholders meetings; (c) improvement of prevention measures and antimicrobial policies. Findings: During the intensified microbiological surveillance MDR-GNB and ESBL-KP were detected in rectal swabs (34.8%; 23.2%), nasal swabs (24.6%; 14.5%), oral swabs (14.5%; 5.4%), milk samples (32.1%; 17.9%), pacifiers swabs (30.8%; 17.9%) and from sub-intensive room surfaces. Thirteen ESBL-KP strains isolated from clinical and environmental samples showed identical PFGE patterns. The prevalence of MDR-GNB and ESBL-KP carriage significantly decreased in the year after intervention compared to the previous year (20.6% vs 62.2%; p < 0.001 and 11.1% vs 57.8%; p < 0.001). MDR-GNB were not detected at all for three months and ESBL-KP for five months. Multivariate analysis of the principal exposure variables showed that admission in the post-intervention period significantly reduced the risk of MDR-GNB carriage (adj-OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.076–0.629; p < 0.001). Conclusions: MDR-GNB broadly circulate in NICU setting, they can colonize different body sites and spread through various vehicles. A coordinated strategy of multiple interventions with active cooperation between epidemiologists and clinicians in the NICU can effectively reduce their circulation and in particular the carriage of the most dangerous ESBL-KP strains.

Saporito L., Graziano G., Mescolo F., Amodio E., Insinga V., Rinaudo G., et al. (2021). Efficacy of a coordinated strategy for containment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria carriage in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the context of an active surveillance program. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND INFECTION CONTROL, 10(1), 30 [10.1186/s13756-021-00902-1].

Efficacy of a coordinated strategy for containment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria carriage in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the context of an active surveillance program

Mescolo F.;Amodio E.;Insinga V.;Bonura C.;Corsello G.;Vitale F.;Maida C. M.;Giuffre M.
2021

Abstract

Background: Antimicrobial resistance in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients is a threat, due to the frequent use of antimicrobial treatment and invasive devices in fragile babies. Since 2014 an active surveillance program of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) carriage has been in place in the five NICUs of Palermo, Italy. In 2017 an increase in the prevalence of MDR-GNB, and in particular of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), was observed in “Civico” hospital NICU. Aim: To assess the impact of a coordinated intervention strategy in achieving long-lasting reduction of MDR-GNB prevalence in the NICU. Methods: Rectal swabs were obtained monthly and processed to detect MDR-GNB using standard methods. MDR-GNB were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Since November 2017 the following intervention measures were applied: (a) two-months intensification of sample collection; (b) stakeholders meetings; (c) improvement of prevention measures and antimicrobial policies. Findings: During the intensified microbiological surveillance MDR-GNB and ESBL-KP were detected in rectal swabs (34.8%; 23.2%), nasal swabs (24.6%; 14.5%), oral swabs (14.5%; 5.4%), milk samples (32.1%; 17.9%), pacifiers swabs (30.8%; 17.9%) and from sub-intensive room surfaces. Thirteen ESBL-KP strains isolated from clinical and environmental samples showed identical PFGE patterns. The prevalence of MDR-GNB and ESBL-KP carriage significantly decreased in the year after intervention compared to the previous year (20.6% vs 62.2%; p < 0.001 and 11.1% vs 57.8%; p < 0.001). MDR-GNB were not detected at all for three months and ESBL-KP for five months. Multivariate analysis of the principal exposure variables showed that admission in the post-intervention period significantly reduced the risk of MDR-GNB carriage (adj-OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.076–0.629; p < 0.001). Conclusions: MDR-GNB broadly circulate in NICU setting, they can colonize different body sites and spread through various vehicles. A coordinated strategy of multiple interventions with active cooperation between epidemiologists and clinicians in the NICU can effectively reduce their circulation and in particular the carriage of the most dangerous ESBL-KP strains.
Saporito L., Graziano G., Mescolo F., Amodio E., Insinga V., Rinaudo G., et al. (2021). Efficacy of a coordinated strategy for containment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria carriage in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the context of an active surveillance program. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND INFECTION CONTROL, 10(1), 30 [10.1186/s13756-021-00902-1].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/482215
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