The debate on state aids to firms and in general the debate on the state role on industrial policy lasts fro a long time. It is endless, because lack not only rigorous empirical evidence of the measure effectiveness, but also a non-organic theory of the subject. A first theoretical discrimination between in-dustrial policies on structure and performance allow us to make some pre-liminary considerations and following implications of research. If the former aimed at changing the genotype, such as the policies that have fostered sus-tainable development based on creation and spread of knowledge, the latter are limited, on the other side, to phenotypic changes characterized by short-term and marginal interventions with limited effects. With regard to the de-velopment of depressed areas and the industries by which they are charac-terized, only the former, through the principles of Darwin selection, replica-tion and variation, can enhance the competitiveness, survival and evolution of the whole industrial system.
Li Donni, A., Provenzano, C. (2012). Politica industriale ed evoluzione dei settori industriali: alcune implicazioni di evolutionary economics. STORIA E POLITICA, 4(2), 212-229 [10.4406/storiaepolitica20120202].