Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health issue, with high mortality rates reported worldwide. It is worth noting that most of the hospitalizations for tuberculosis in the Sicilian region involve Italian-born individuals, underscoring the need to address this problem. Recent research on the geographic area and seasonality of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, may aid in developing effective preventive measures. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the season and geographical area on tuberculosis disease prevalence in the Sicilian region. Methods: A retrospective study from January 2018 to May 2023 was conducted on patients with tuberculosis in the Sicilian region by analyzing computerized records on the Infectious Diseases Information System, currently named the Italian National Notification System (NSIS), of the Epidemiology Unit at Policlinico Paolo Giaccone University Hospital of Palermo and the Regional Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Control. Results: Eastern and Western Sicily were the geographical Sicilian areas with the highest frequency of patients with tuberculosis (52.2% and 42.6%, respectively). In comparison, Central Sicily had a significantly lower frequency of patients with tuberculosis (5.2%). Regarding the season, autumn was the season with the highest number of notification cases (28.9%), while spring was the season with the lowest frequency of patients with tuberculosis (19.7%). In autumn, we found significantly fewer patients with tuberculosis from Eastern Sicily (39.3%) and Central Sicily (1.5%), while Western Sicily had more patients with tuberculosis (59.3%). In spring, we found significantly more patients with tuberculosis from Eastern Sicily (64.1%), while Western and Central Sicily had significantly fewer patients with tuberculosis (23.9% and 12%, respectively). The presence of patients with tuberculosis did not significantly differ between geographical regions in summer and winter. Conclusions: Geographical area and seasonality significantly impact the distribution of tuberculosis cases in Sicily. These factors may be linked to different climatic conditions across the various geographical areas considered. Our findings suggest that climate can play a critical role in the spread of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis.

Malta, G., Serra, N., Spatola, G.F., Maida, C.M., Graziano, G., Di Raimondo, D., et al. (2024). The Impact of the Seasonal and Geographical Distribution of Tuberculosis in Sicily: A 6-Year Retrospective Study (2018–2023). JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 13(12) [10.3390/jcm13123546].

The Impact of the Seasonal and Geographical Distribution of Tuberculosis in Sicily: A 6-Year Retrospective Study (2018–2023)

Malta, Ginevra
Primo
;
Spatola, Giovanni Francesco;Maida, Carmelo Massimo;Graziano, Giorgio;Di Raimondo, Domenico;Fasciana, Teresa Maria Assunta;Caputo, Valentina;Giammanco, Anna;Cascio, Antonio;Di Carlo, Paola
2024-06-17

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health issue, with high mortality rates reported worldwide. It is worth noting that most of the hospitalizations for tuberculosis in the Sicilian region involve Italian-born individuals, underscoring the need to address this problem. Recent research on the geographic area and seasonality of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, may aid in developing effective preventive measures. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the season and geographical area on tuberculosis disease prevalence in the Sicilian region. Methods: A retrospective study from January 2018 to May 2023 was conducted on patients with tuberculosis in the Sicilian region by analyzing computerized records on the Infectious Diseases Information System, currently named the Italian National Notification System (NSIS), of the Epidemiology Unit at Policlinico Paolo Giaccone University Hospital of Palermo and the Regional Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis Surveillance and Control. Results: Eastern and Western Sicily were the geographical Sicilian areas with the highest frequency of patients with tuberculosis (52.2% and 42.6%, respectively). In comparison, Central Sicily had a significantly lower frequency of patients with tuberculosis (5.2%). Regarding the season, autumn was the season with the highest number of notification cases (28.9%), while spring was the season with the lowest frequency of patients with tuberculosis (19.7%). In autumn, we found significantly fewer patients with tuberculosis from Eastern Sicily (39.3%) and Central Sicily (1.5%), while Western Sicily had more patients with tuberculosis (59.3%). In spring, we found significantly more patients with tuberculosis from Eastern Sicily (64.1%), while Western and Central Sicily had significantly fewer patients with tuberculosis (23.9% and 12%, respectively). The presence of patients with tuberculosis did not significantly differ between geographical regions in summer and winter. Conclusions: Geographical area and seasonality significantly impact the distribution of tuberculosis cases in Sicily. These factors may be linked to different climatic conditions across the various geographical areas considered. Our findings suggest that climate can play a critical role in the spread of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis.
17-giu-2024
Malta, G., Serra, N., Spatola, G.F., Maida, C.M., Graziano, G., Di Raimondo, D., et al. (2024). The Impact of the Seasonal and Geographical Distribution of Tuberculosis in Sicily: A 6-Year Retrospective Study (2018–2023). JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 13(12) [10.3390/jcm13123546].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/641703
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