Context In the last decade the Sanger method of DNA sequencing has been replaced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS is valuable in conditions characterized by high genetic heterogeneity such as neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM).Objective To compare results of genetic analysis of patients with NDM and congenital severe insulin resistance (c.SIR) identified in Italy in 2003-2012 (Sanger) vs 2013-2022 (NGS).Methods We reviewed clinical and genetic records of 104 cases with diabetes onset before 6 months of age (NDM + c.SIR) of the Italian dataset.Results Fifty-five patients (50 NDM + 5 c.SIR) were identified during 2003-2012 and 49 (46 NDM + 3 c.SIR) in 2013-2022. Twenty-year incidence was 1:103 340 (NDM) and 1:1 240 082 (c.SIR) live births. Frequent NDM/c.SIR genetic defects (KCNJ11, INS, ABCC8, 6q24, INSR) were detected in 41 and 34 probands during 2003-2012 and 2013-2022, respectively. We identified a pathogenic variant in rare genes in a single proband (GATA4) (1/42 or 2.4%) during 2003-2012 and in 8 infants (RFX6, PDX1, GATA6, HNF1B, FOXP3, IL2RA, LRBA, BSCL2) during 2013-2022 (8/42 or 19%, P = .034 vs 2003-2012). Notably, among rare genes 5 were recessive. Swift and accurate genetic diagnosis led to appropriate treatment: patients with autoimmune NDM (FOXP3, IL2RA, LRBA) were subjected to bone marrow transplant; patients with pancreas agenesis/hypoplasia (RFX6, PDX1) were supplemented with pancreatic enzymes, and the individual with lipodystrophy caused by BSCL2 was started on metreleptin.Conclusion NGS substantially improved diagnosis and precision therapy of monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes and c.SIR in Italy.

Rapini, N., Delvecchio, M., Mucciolo, M., Ruta, R., Rabbone, I., Cherubini, V., et al. (2024). The Changing Landscape of Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Italy Between 2003 and 2022. THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM [10.1210/clinem/dgae095].

The Changing Landscape of Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Italy Between 2003 and 2022

Maggio, Maria Cristina;Panzeca, Rossana
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2024-02-26

Abstract

Context In the last decade the Sanger method of DNA sequencing has been replaced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS is valuable in conditions characterized by high genetic heterogeneity such as neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM).Objective To compare results of genetic analysis of patients with NDM and congenital severe insulin resistance (c.SIR) identified in Italy in 2003-2012 (Sanger) vs 2013-2022 (NGS).Methods We reviewed clinical and genetic records of 104 cases with diabetes onset before 6 months of age (NDM + c.SIR) of the Italian dataset.Results Fifty-five patients (50 NDM + 5 c.SIR) were identified during 2003-2012 and 49 (46 NDM + 3 c.SIR) in 2013-2022. Twenty-year incidence was 1:103 340 (NDM) and 1:1 240 082 (c.SIR) live births. Frequent NDM/c.SIR genetic defects (KCNJ11, INS, ABCC8, 6q24, INSR) were detected in 41 and 34 probands during 2003-2012 and 2013-2022, respectively. We identified a pathogenic variant in rare genes in a single proband (GATA4) (1/42 or 2.4%) during 2003-2012 and in 8 infants (RFX6, PDX1, GATA6, HNF1B, FOXP3, IL2RA, LRBA, BSCL2) during 2013-2022 (8/42 or 19%, P = .034 vs 2003-2012). Notably, among rare genes 5 were recessive. Swift and accurate genetic diagnosis led to appropriate treatment: patients with autoimmune NDM (FOXP3, IL2RA, LRBA) were subjected to bone marrow transplant; patients with pancreas agenesis/hypoplasia (RFX6, PDX1) were supplemented with pancreatic enzymes, and the individual with lipodystrophy caused by BSCL2 was started on metreleptin.Conclusion NGS substantially improved diagnosis and precision therapy of monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes and c.SIR in Italy.
26-feb-2024
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale E Specialistica
Rapini, N., Delvecchio, M., Mucciolo, M., Ruta, R., Rabbone, I., Cherubini, V., et al. (2024). The Changing Landscape of Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Italy Between 2003 and 2022. THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM [10.1210/clinem/dgae095].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/640627
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