Background: A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on vascular health indices such as endothelial function indices, serum lipid and ceramide plasma and some adipokine serum levels. We recruited all consecutive patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases admitted to the Internal Medicine and Stroke Care ward at the University Hospital of Palermo between September 2017 and December 2020. Materials and methods: The enrolled subjects, after the evaluation of the degree of adherence to a dietary regimen of the Mediterranean-style diet, were randomised to a Mediterranean Diet (group A) assessing the adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet at each follow up visit (every three months) for the entire duration of the study (twelve months) and to a Low-fat diet (group B) with a dietary "counselling" starting every three months for the entire duration of the study (twelve months).The aims of the study were to evaluate: the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on some surrogate markers of vascular damage, such as endothelial function measured by means of the reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIX), at the 6-(T1) and 12-month (T2) follow-ups; the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on the lipidaemic profile and on serum levels of ceramides at T1 and T2 follow-ups; the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on serum levels of visfatin, adiponectin and resistin at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Results: A total of 101 patients were randomised to a Mediterranean Diet style and 52 control subjects were randomised to a low-fat diet with a dietary "counselling". At the six-month follow-up (T1), subjects in the Mediterranean Diet group showed significantly lower mean serum total cholesterol levels, and significantly higher increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) values compared to the low-fat diet group. Patients in the Mediterranean Diet group also showed lower serum levels of resistin and visfatin at the six-month follow-up compared to the control group, as well as higher values ​​of adiponectin, lower values of C24:0, higher values of C22:0 and higher values of the C24:0/C16:0 ratio. At the twelve-month follow-up (T2), subjects in the Mediterranean Diet group showed lower serum total cholesterol levels and lower serum LDL cholesterol levels than those in the control group. At the twelve-month follow-up, we also observed a further significant increase in the mean RHI in the Mediterranean Diet group, lower serum levels of resistin and visfatin, lower values of C24:0 and of C:18:0,and higher values of the C24:0/C16:0 ratio. Discussion: The findings of our current study offer a further possible explanation with regard to the beneficial effects of a higher degree of adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet on multiple cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Moreover, these findings provide an additional plausible interpretation of the results from observational and cohort studies linking high adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet with lower total mortality and a decrease in cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04873167. https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04873167.

Daidone M., Casuccio A., Puleo M.G., Del Cuore A., Pacinella G., Di Chiara T., et al. (2024). Mediterranean diet effects on vascular health and serum levels of adipokines and ceramides. PLOS ONE, 19(5), 1-20 [10.1371/journal.pone.0300844].

Mediterranean diet effects on vascular health and serum levels of adipokines and ceramides

Daidone M.;Casuccio A.;Puleo M. G.;Del Cuore A.;Pacinella G.;Di Chiara T.;Di Raimondo D.;Immordino P.;Tuttolomondo A.
2024-05-22

Abstract

Background: A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on vascular health indices such as endothelial function indices, serum lipid and ceramide plasma and some adipokine serum levels. We recruited all consecutive patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases admitted to the Internal Medicine and Stroke Care ward at the University Hospital of Palermo between September 2017 and December 2020. Materials and methods: The enrolled subjects, after the evaluation of the degree of adherence to a dietary regimen of the Mediterranean-style diet, were randomised to a Mediterranean Diet (group A) assessing the adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet at each follow up visit (every three months) for the entire duration of the study (twelve months) and to a Low-fat diet (group B) with a dietary "counselling" starting every three months for the entire duration of the study (twelve months).The aims of the study were to evaluate: the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on some surrogate markers of vascular damage, such as endothelial function measured by means of the reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIX), at the 6-(T1) and 12-month (T2) follow-ups; the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on the lipidaemic profile and on serum levels of ceramides at T1 and T2 follow-ups; the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet on serum levels of visfatin, adiponectin and resistin at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Results: A total of 101 patients were randomised to a Mediterranean Diet style and 52 control subjects were randomised to a low-fat diet with a dietary "counselling". At the six-month follow-up (T1), subjects in the Mediterranean Diet group showed significantly lower mean serum total cholesterol levels, and significantly higher increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) values compared to the low-fat diet group. Patients in the Mediterranean Diet group also showed lower serum levels of resistin and visfatin at the six-month follow-up compared to the control group, as well as higher values ​​of adiponectin, lower values of C24:0, higher values of C22:0 and higher values of the C24:0/C16:0 ratio. At the twelve-month follow-up (T2), subjects in the Mediterranean Diet group showed lower serum total cholesterol levels and lower serum LDL cholesterol levels than those in the control group. At the twelve-month follow-up, we also observed a further significant increase in the mean RHI in the Mediterranean Diet group, lower serum levels of resistin and visfatin, lower values of C24:0 and of C:18:0,and higher values of the C24:0/C16:0 ratio. Discussion: The findings of our current study offer a further possible explanation with regard to the beneficial effects of a higher degree of adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet on multiple cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Moreover, these findings provide an additional plausible interpretation of the results from observational and cohort studies linking high adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet with lower total mortality and a decrease in cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04873167. https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04873167.
22-mag-2024
Daidone M., Casuccio A., Puleo M.G., Del Cuore A., Pacinella G., Di Chiara T., et al. (2024). Mediterranean diet effects on vascular health and serum levels of adipokines and ceramides. PLOS ONE, 19(5), 1-20 [10.1371/journal.pone.0300844].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/640237
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