Adult parasitoids are well known to feed on sugar-rich resources such as floral nectar. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has shown that nectar is ubiquitously colonized by microorganisms and, as a consequence, microbial metabolic activity can affect several traits of floral nectar. Yet, how the fermentation of nectar by yeasts impacts the olfactory responses and performance of parasitoids is largely understudied, especially in the case of egg parasitoids. In this study, we investigated whether fermentation by the nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessii and M. reukaufii affects the olfactory responses of Trissolcus basalis and Ooencyrtus telenomicida, two egg parasitoid species associated with the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula. We also investigated how yeast fermentation affects the longevity and survival of the egg parasitoids. Results of static four-chamber olfactometer tests showed that nectar fermented by M. gruessii (but not by M. reukaufii) was attractive to both egg parasitoid species, whereas no significant yeast-mediated effects were found in terms of wasp longevity. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed a clear separation of the volatile profiles among M. gruessii, M. reukaufii and non-fermented control nectar supporting the results of the insect bioassays. The results of our study highlight the need to consider the role of microbes when studying interactions between flower nectar and egg parasitoids and could have implications from a conservation biological control perspective.

Ermio J.D.L., Peri E., Bella P., Rostas M., Sobhy I.S., Wenseleers T., et al. (2024). The indirect effect of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on olfactory responses and longevity of two stink bug egg parasitoids. BIOCONTROL [10.1007/s10526-023-10237-y].

The indirect effect of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on olfactory responses and longevity of two stink bug egg parasitoids

Peri E.
;
Bella P.;Colazza S.;Cusumano A.
2024-01-01

Abstract

Adult parasitoids are well known to feed on sugar-rich resources such as floral nectar. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has shown that nectar is ubiquitously colonized by microorganisms and, as a consequence, microbial metabolic activity can affect several traits of floral nectar. Yet, how the fermentation of nectar by yeasts impacts the olfactory responses and performance of parasitoids is largely understudied, especially in the case of egg parasitoids. In this study, we investigated whether fermentation by the nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessii and M. reukaufii affects the olfactory responses of Trissolcus basalis and Ooencyrtus telenomicida, two egg parasitoid species associated with the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula. We also investigated how yeast fermentation affects the longevity and survival of the egg parasitoids. Results of static four-chamber olfactometer tests showed that nectar fermented by M. gruessii (but not by M. reukaufii) was attractive to both egg parasitoid species, whereas no significant yeast-mediated effects were found in terms of wasp longevity. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed a clear separation of the volatile profiles among M. gruessii, M. reukaufii and non-fermented control nectar supporting the results of the insect bioassays. The results of our study highlight the need to consider the role of microbes when studying interactions between flower nectar and egg parasitoids and could have implications from a conservation biological control perspective.
gen-2024
Ermio J.D.L., Peri E., Bella P., Rostas M., Sobhy I.S., Wenseleers T., et al. (2024). The indirect effect of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on olfactory responses and longevity of two stink bug egg parasitoids. BIOCONTROL [10.1007/s10526-023-10237-y].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/639342
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