Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is one of the rarest RASopathies characterized by multiple congenital ectodermal, cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities with a mild to severe ocular, gastrointestinal and neurological involvement. It is an autosomal dominant syndrome, with complete penetrance, caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the genes BRAF, MAP2K1/MEK1, MAP2K2/MEK2, KRAS or, rarely, YWHAZ, all part of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This pathway is a signal transduction cascade that plays a crucial role in normal cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, metabolism and migration. CFC syndrome overlaps with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Legius syndrome, therefore making the diagnosis challenging. Neurological involvement in CFC is more severe than in other RASopathies. Phenotypic variability in CFC patients is related to the specific gene affected, without a recognized genotype-phenotype correlation for distinct pathogenic variants. Currently, there is no specific treatment for CFC syndrome. Encouraging zebrafish model system studies suggested that, in the future, MEK inhibitors could be a suitable treatment of progressive phenotypes of CFC in children. A multidisciplinary care is necessary for appropriate medical management.

Giovanna Scorrano, E.D. (2023). The Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: From Genetics to Prognostic-Therapeutic Implications [10.3390/genes14122111].

The Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: From Genetics to Prognostic-Therapeutic Implications

Rosaria Nardello;Giuseppe Donato Mangano;
2023-11-22

Abstract

Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is one of the rarest RASopathies characterized by multiple congenital ectodermal, cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities with a mild to severe ocular, gastrointestinal and neurological involvement. It is an autosomal dominant syndrome, with complete penetrance, caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the genes BRAF, MAP2K1/MEK1, MAP2K2/MEK2, KRAS or, rarely, YWHAZ, all part of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This pathway is a signal transduction cascade that plays a crucial role in normal cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, metabolism and migration. CFC syndrome overlaps with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Legius syndrome, therefore making the diagnosis challenging. Neurological involvement in CFC is more severe than in other RASopathies. Phenotypic variability in CFC patients is related to the specific gene affected, without a recognized genotype-phenotype correlation for distinct pathogenic variants. Currently, there is no specific treatment for CFC syndrome. Encouraging zebrafish model system studies suggested that, in the future, MEK inhibitors could be a suitable treatment of progressive phenotypes of CFC in children. A multidisciplinary care is necessary for appropriate medical management.
22-nov-2023
Giovanna Scorrano, E.D. (2023). The Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: From Genetics to Prognostic-Therapeutic Implications [10.3390/genes14122111].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/638702
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