During the Italian-Turkish war, for the invasion of Libya, in 1912, Rome first occupied, and then in 1922, annexed the island of Rhodes, located opposite the coast of Anatolia and other islands of the Aegean sea, between which is the island, called by the Italians, of Kos. In the city of Rhodes, the restoration of medieval and proto-Renaissance architecture was the political-cultural objective, functional to clarifying its Latinity. Instead, in the city of Kos, on the nearby island of the same name, the bringing to light of the archaeological remains served to demonstrate, above all, the Roman presence through the work of archaeologists, in collaboration with Italian architects, who drew up the surveys and projects during the excavations. of anastylosis, for restoration sites. The earthquake of 1933 interrupted this activity, and also imposed the restoration of the site, which was carried out in a few years, before the archaeological explorations and restoration could continue. The city of Kos, already in 1934, had equipped itself with a master plan, based on the remains of the ancient city, with constraints and provision for new buildings, such as the archaeological museum. The essay intends to investigate the work of the archaeologists, architects and restorers of the Superintendency of Rhodes, and particularly of Kos, who worked to protect the sites and archaeological finds (such as columns, capitals, architraves, vases, statues, gold), taking them to shelters obtained between the walls of the castle or hidden in trenches underground, following a drawing of each place, with indications of their position and contents. All this according to the regulation of 6.7.1940 for the "Protection of things of historical, artistic and bibliographical interest of the Nation in the event of war", of the Ministry of National Education. When on 17.02.1941 Coo was bombed by Anglo-American planes, the protection of the archaeological finds in shelters was underway (25.2-24.3.1941), however after 8.9.1943, with the armistice, the German troops stationed in Rhodes began to plunder what they could find of them, but the largest share remained guarded, thanks to the work of the Italian employees. The English troops, who liberated and occupied Coo, left the finds in shelters and hidden trenches. The Italians kept the map with the depots and trenches hidden, both during the German and Allied occupation. In 1948 the lists and map of the deposits were delivered to the Greek Government, and only in 1952 was the opening of the deposits and the delivery of the finds to officials of the Greek Government, who were able to verify the accuracy of what was declared in the minutes. A beautiful story of Italian protection and restoration, where the drawing, in addition to documenting the excavations and anastylosis projects, was also the fundamental tool for protecting the archaeological heritage, which certainly would have been lost, and instead is today preserved and shown in the museum of Kos.

Nel corso della guerra italo-turca, per l’invasione della Libia, nel 1912, Roma prima occupò, e poi nel 1922, annesse l’isola di Rodi, posta di fronte la costa dell’Anatolia e altre isole del mare Egeo, fra le quali l’isola, chiamata dagli italiani, di Coo. Nella città di Rodi, il restauro dell’architettura medievale e protorinascimentale fu l’obiettivo politico culturale, funzionale ad acclarare la sua latinità. Invece nella città di Coo, della vicina omonima isola, la messa in luce dei resti archeologici serviva a dimostrare, la presenza, soprattutto, romana attraverso il lavoro degli archeologi, in collaborazione con gli architetti italiani, che negli scavi, redigevano i rilievi e i progetti di anastilosi, per i cantieri di restauro. Il terremoto del 1933 interruppe quest’attività, e impose anche il restauro del sito, realizzato in pochi anni, prima di potere continuare le esplorazioni archeologiche e le sistemazioni. La città di Coo, già nel 1934, si era dotata di un piano regolatore, basato sui resti dell’antica città, con i vincoli e previsione di nuovi edifici, come il museo archeologico. Il saggio intende indagare il lavoro degli archeologi, architetti e restauratori della Soprintendenza di Rodi, e particolarmente di Coo, che si adoperarono per proteggere i siti e i reperti archeologici (come colonne, capitelli, architravi, vasi, statue, ori), portandoli in rifugi ricavati tra le murature del castello o nascosti in trincee sottoterra, previo disegno di ogni luogo, con indicazioni della loro posizione e del contenuto. Tutto ciò secondo, la norma, del 6.7.1940, per la “Protezione delle cose d’interesse storico artistico e bibliografico della Nazione in caso di guerra”, del Ministero dell’Educazione Nazionale. Quando il 17.02.1941 Coo fu bombardata dagli aerei anglo americani, era in corso la protezione in rifugi dei reperti archeologici (25.2-24.3.1941), invece dopo l’8.9.1943, con l’armistizio, le truppe tedesche di stanza a Rodi cominciarono a saccheggiare quello che riuscivano a trovare di essi, ma la quota maggiore rimase custodita, grazie al lavoro degli impiegati italiani. Le truppe inglesi, che liberarono e occuparono Coo, lasciarono i reperti nei rifugi e nelle trincee nascoste. Gli italiani tennero nascosta la mappa con i depositi e trincee, sia durante l’occupazione tedesca che in quella alleata. Nel 1948 vi fu la consegna al Governo greco degli elenchi e mappa depositi, e solo nel 1952 vi fu l’apertura dei deposti e la consegna dei reperti a funzionari del Governo Greco, che poterono constatare l’esattezza di quanto dichiarato nei verbali. Una bella storia di tutela e restauro italiano, dove il disegno, oltre che a documentare gli scavi e i progetti di anastilosi è stato anche lo strumento fondamentale per proteggere il patrimonio archeologico, che certamente sarebbe andato disperso, ed invece è oggi conservato e mostrato nel museo di Kos.

Rosario Scaduto (2023). La protezione italiana dei resti archeologici dell’isola di Kos dai bombardamenti inglesi e saccheggi tedeschi della seconda guerra mondiale. In R. Amore, M.I. Pascariello, A. Verapalumbo (a cura di), Città e guerra : difese, distruzioni, permanenze delle memorie e dell’immagine urbana -City and war Military defences, ruins, permances of urban memories and images- Tomo secondo: Tracce e patrimoni (pp. 993-1000). Napoli : Federico II University Press; fedOA Press.

La protezione italiana dei resti archeologici dell’isola di Kos dai bombardamenti inglesi e saccheggi tedeschi della seconda guerra mondiale

Rosario Scaduto
2023-12-01

Abstract

During the Italian-Turkish war, for the invasion of Libya, in 1912, Rome first occupied, and then in 1922, annexed the island of Rhodes, located opposite the coast of Anatolia and other islands of the Aegean sea, between which is the island, called by the Italians, of Kos. In the city of Rhodes, the restoration of medieval and proto-Renaissance architecture was the political-cultural objective, functional to clarifying its Latinity. Instead, in the city of Kos, on the nearby island of the same name, the bringing to light of the archaeological remains served to demonstrate, above all, the Roman presence through the work of archaeologists, in collaboration with Italian architects, who drew up the surveys and projects during the excavations. of anastylosis, for restoration sites. The earthquake of 1933 interrupted this activity, and also imposed the restoration of the site, which was carried out in a few years, before the archaeological explorations and restoration could continue. The city of Kos, already in 1934, had equipped itself with a master plan, based on the remains of the ancient city, with constraints and provision for new buildings, such as the archaeological museum. The essay intends to investigate the work of the archaeologists, architects and restorers of the Superintendency of Rhodes, and particularly of Kos, who worked to protect the sites and archaeological finds (such as columns, capitals, architraves, vases, statues, gold), taking them to shelters obtained between the walls of the castle or hidden in trenches underground, following a drawing of each place, with indications of their position and contents. All this according to the regulation of 6.7.1940 for the "Protection of things of historical, artistic and bibliographical interest of the Nation in the event of war", of the Ministry of National Education. When on 17.02.1941 Coo was bombed by Anglo-American planes, the protection of the archaeological finds in shelters was underway (25.2-24.3.1941), however after 8.9.1943, with the armistice, the German troops stationed in Rhodes began to plunder what they could find of them, but the largest share remained guarded, thanks to the work of the Italian employees. The English troops, who liberated and occupied Coo, left the finds in shelters and hidden trenches. The Italians kept the map with the depots and trenches hidden, both during the German and Allied occupation. In 1948 the lists and map of the deposits were delivered to the Greek Government, and only in 1952 was the opening of the deposits and the delivery of the finds to officials of the Greek Government, who were able to verify the accuracy of what was declared in the minutes. A beautiful story of Italian protection and restoration, where the drawing, in addition to documenting the excavations and anastylosis projects, was also the fundamental tool for protecting the archaeological heritage, which certainly would have been lost, and instead is today preserved and shown in the museum of Kos.
The Italian protection of the archaeological remains of the island of Kos from the English bombings and German looting of the Second World War
dic-2023
Settore ICAR/19 - Restauro
Rosario Scaduto (2023). La protezione italiana dei resti archeologici dell’isola di Kos dai bombardamenti inglesi e saccheggi tedeschi della seconda guerra mondiale. In R. Amore, M.I. Pascariello, A. Verapalumbo (a cura di), Città e guerra : difese, distruzioni, permanenze delle memorie e dell’immagine urbana -City and war Military defences, ruins, permances of urban memories and images- Tomo secondo: Tracce e patrimoni (pp. 993-1000). Napoli : Federico II University Press; fedOA Press.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/637422
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