The term "neuroinflammation" defines the typical inflammatory response of the brain closely related to the onset of many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Neuroinflammation is well known, but its mechanisms and pathways are not entirely comprehended. Some progresses have been achieved through many efforts and research. Consequently, new cellular and molecular mechanisms, diverse and conventional, are emerging. In listing some of those that will be the subject of our description and discussion, essential are the important roles of peripheral and infiltrated monocytes and clonotypic cells, alterations in the gut-brain axis, dysregulation of the apelinergic system, alterations in the endothelial glycocalyx of the endothelial component of neuronal vascular units, variations in expression of some genes and levels of the encoding molecules by the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), or other epigenetic factors and distinctive transcriptional factors, as well as the role of autophagy, ferroptosis, sex differences, and modifications in the circadian cycle. Such mechanisms can add significantly to understanding the complex etiological puzzle of neuroinflammation and ND. In addition, they could represent biomarkers and targets of ND, which is increasing in the elderly.

Balistreri C.R., Monastero R. (2024). Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases: How Much Do We Still Not Know? [10.3390/brainsci14010019].

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases: How Much Do We Still Not Know?

Balistreri C. R.
Primo
Supervision
;
Monastero R.
Ultimo
Supervision
2024-01-01

Abstract

The term "neuroinflammation" defines the typical inflammatory response of the brain closely related to the onset of many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Neuroinflammation is well known, but its mechanisms and pathways are not entirely comprehended. Some progresses have been achieved through many efforts and research. Consequently, new cellular and molecular mechanisms, diverse and conventional, are emerging. In listing some of those that will be the subject of our description and discussion, essential are the important roles of peripheral and infiltrated monocytes and clonotypic cells, alterations in the gut-brain axis, dysregulation of the apelinergic system, alterations in the endothelial glycocalyx of the endothelial component of neuronal vascular units, variations in expression of some genes and levels of the encoding molecules by the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), or other epigenetic factors and distinctive transcriptional factors, as well as the role of autophagy, ferroptosis, sex differences, and modifications in the circadian cycle. Such mechanisms can add significantly to understanding the complex etiological puzzle of neuroinflammation and ND. In addition, they could represent biomarkers and targets of ND, which is increasing in the elderly.
gen-2024
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
Settore MED/05 - Patologia Clinica
Balistreri C.R., Monastero R. (2024). Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases: How Much Do We Still Not Know? [10.3390/brainsci14010019].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Balistreri and Monastero, Neuroinflammation and ND, Brain Sci 2024.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Review
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale
Dimensione 1.56 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.56 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/633073
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact