To date, the exact pathophysiology of haemorrhoids is poorly understood. The different philosophies on haemorrhoids aetiology may lead to different approaches of treatment. A pathogenic theory involving a correlation between altered anal canal microflora, local inflammation, and muscular dyssynergia is proposed through an extensive review of the literature. Since the middle of the twentieth century, three main theories exist: (1) the varicose vein theory, (2) the vascular hyperplasia theory, and (3) the concept of a sliding anal lining. These phenomena determine changes in the connective tissue (linked to inflammation), including loss of organization, muscular hypertrophy, fragmentation of the anal subepithelial muscle and the elastin component, and vascular changes, including abnormal venous dilatation and vascular thrombosis. Recent studies have reported a possible involvement of gut microbiota in gut motility alteration. Furthermore, dysbiosis seems to represent the leading cause of bowel mucosa inflammation in any intestinal district. The alteration of the gut microbioma in the anorectal district could be responsible for haemorrhoids and other anorectal disorders. A deeper knowledge of the gut microbiota in anorectal disorders lays the basis for unveiling the roles of these various gut microbiota components in anorectal disorder pathogenesis and being conductive to instructing future therapeutics. The therapeutic strategy of antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation will benefit the effective application of precision microbiome manipulation in anorectal disorders.

Palumbo V.D., Tutino R., Messina M., Santarelli M., Nigro C., Lo Secco G., et al. (2023). Altered Gut Microbic Flora and Haemorrhoids: Could They Have a Possible Relationship?. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 12(6) [10.3390/jcm12062198].

Altered Gut Microbic Flora and Haemorrhoids: Could They Have a Possible Relationship?

Palumbo V. D.;Tutino R.;Messina M.;Nigro C.;Barletta G.;Geraci G.;Bonventre S.;Lo Monte A. I.
2023-01-01

Abstract

To date, the exact pathophysiology of haemorrhoids is poorly understood. The different philosophies on haemorrhoids aetiology may lead to different approaches of treatment. A pathogenic theory involving a correlation between altered anal canal microflora, local inflammation, and muscular dyssynergia is proposed through an extensive review of the literature. Since the middle of the twentieth century, three main theories exist: (1) the varicose vein theory, (2) the vascular hyperplasia theory, and (3) the concept of a sliding anal lining. These phenomena determine changes in the connective tissue (linked to inflammation), including loss of organization, muscular hypertrophy, fragmentation of the anal subepithelial muscle and the elastin component, and vascular changes, including abnormal venous dilatation and vascular thrombosis. Recent studies have reported a possible involvement of gut microbiota in gut motility alteration. Furthermore, dysbiosis seems to represent the leading cause of bowel mucosa inflammation in any intestinal district. The alteration of the gut microbioma in the anorectal district could be responsible for haemorrhoids and other anorectal disorders. A deeper knowledge of the gut microbiota in anorectal disorders lays the basis for unveiling the roles of these various gut microbiota components in anorectal disorder pathogenesis and being conductive to instructing future therapeutics. The therapeutic strategy of antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation will benefit the effective application of precision microbiome manipulation in anorectal disorders.
2023
Palumbo V.D., Tutino R., Messina M., Santarelli M., Nigro C., Lo Secco G., et al. (2023). Altered Gut Microbic Flora and Haemorrhoids: Could They Have a Possible Relationship?. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 12(6) [10.3390/jcm12062198].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/625098
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