Microbiotas are the range of microorganisms (mainly bacteria and fungi) colonizing multicellular, macroscopic organisms. They are crucial for several metabolic functions affecting the health of the host. However, difficulties hamper the investigation of microbiota composition in cultivating microorganisms in standard growth media. For this reason, our knowledge of microbiota can benefit from the analysis of microbial macromolecules (DNA, transcripts, proteins, or by-products) present in various samples collected from the host. Various omics technologies are used to obtain different data. Metagenomics provides a taxonomical profile of the sample. It can also be used to obtain potential functional information. At the same time, metatranscriptomics can characterize members of a microbiome responsible for specific functions and elucidate genes that drive the microbiotas relationship with its host. Thus, while microbiota refers to microorganisms living in a determined environment (taxonomy of microorganisms identified), microbiome refers to the microorganisms and their genes living in a determined environment and, of course, metagenomics focuses on the genes and collective functions of identified microorganisms. Metabolomics completes this framework by determining the metabolite fluxes and the products released into the environment. The gallbladder is a sac localized under the liver in the human body and is difficult to access for bile and tissue sampling. It concentrates the bile produced in the hepatocytes, which drains into bile canaliculi. Bile promotes fat digestion and is released from the gallbladder into the upper small intestine in response to food. Considered sterile originally, recent data indicate that bile microbiota is associated with the biliary tract's inflammation and carcinogenesis. The sample size is relevant for omic studies of rare diseases, such as gallbladder carcinoma. Although in its infancy, the study of the biliary microbiota has begun taking advantage of several omics strategies, mainly based on metagenomics, metabolomics, and mouse models. Here, we show that omics analyses from the literature may provide a more comprehensive image of the biliary microbiota. We review studies performed in this environmental niche and focus on network-based approaches for integrative studies.

Di Carlo, P., Serra, N., Alduina, R., Guarino, R., Craxì, A., Giammanco, A., et al. (2022). A systematic review on omics data (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics) in the role of microbiome in gallbladder disease. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, 13 [10.3389/fphys.2022.888233].

A systematic review on omics data (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics) in the role of microbiome in gallbladder disease

Di Carlo, Paola
Primo
;
Alduina, Rosa;Guarino, Riccardo;Giammanco, Anna;Fasciana, Teresa;Cascio, Antonio;
2022-08-30

Abstract

Microbiotas are the range of microorganisms (mainly bacteria and fungi) colonizing multicellular, macroscopic organisms. They are crucial for several metabolic functions affecting the health of the host. However, difficulties hamper the investigation of microbiota composition in cultivating microorganisms in standard growth media. For this reason, our knowledge of microbiota can benefit from the analysis of microbial macromolecules (DNA, transcripts, proteins, or by-products) present in various samples collected from the host. Various omics technologies are used to obtain different data. Metagenomics provides a taxonomical profile of the sample. It can also be used to obtain potential functional information. At the same time, metatranscriptomics can characterize members of a microbiome responsible for specific functions and elucidate genes that drive the microbiotas relationship with its host. Thus, while microbiota refers to microorganisms living in a determined environment (taxonomy of microorganisms identified), microbiome refers to the microorganisms and their genes living in a determined environment and, of course, metagenomics focuses on the genes and collective functions of identified microorganisms. Metabolomics completes this framework by determining the metabolite fluxes and the products released into the environment. The gallbladder is a sac localized under the liver in the human body and is difficult to access for bile and tissue sampling. It concentrates the bile produced in the hepatocytes, which drains into bile canaliculi. Bile promotes fat digestion and is released from the gallbladder into the upper small intestine in response to food. Considered sterile originally, recent data indicate that bile microbiota is associated with the biliary tract's inflammation and carcinogenesis. The sample size is relevant for omic studies of rare diseases, such as gallbladder carcinoma. Although in its infancy, the study of the biliary microbiota has begun taking advantage of several omics strategies, mainly based on metagenomics, metabolomics, and mouse models. Here, we show that omics analyses from the literature may provide a more comprehensive image of the biliary microbiota. We review studies performed in this environmental niche and focus on network-based approaches for integrative studies.
30-ago-2022
Di Carlo, P., Serra, N., Alduina, R., Guarino, R., Craxì, A., Giammanco, A., et al. (2022). A systematic review on omics data (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics) in the role of microbiome in gallbladder disease. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, 13 [10.3389/fphys.2022.888233].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/619318
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