Observations on cytological and ultrastructural changes in Plasmopara viticola oospores were carried out during the overwintering period. Three types of oospores were observed. Type I, characterized by a thin inner oospore wall (IOW), large lipid globules and two nuclei, was recovered only in samples collected in October. These oospores were considered to be immature. Maturation occurred during November and involved a noticeable increase in thickness of the IOW, fusion of nuclei, formation of an ooplast and break up of large lipid globules into smaller ones (type II oospores). A few oospores (type III) showed abnormal organization with very large lipid globules and less frequently discernible nuclei. IOW solubilization, dissolution of the ooplast and lipid globules and nuclear division were the first detectable events during oospore germination. Germinating oospores produce a germ tube which was terminated by a sporangium. In its young stage, the sporangium had a thick wall and an unusual multi-layered membrane. During this phase, nuclear divisions took place in the sporangium. While sporangium development progressed, the ribosome density in the cytoplasm decreased and mitochondria, initially roundish with evident cristae, became their usual tubular profile. The plasma membrane had a typical structure and storage organelles, such as finger print vacuoles and lipid globules, became more numerous in the cytoplasm. Larger vacuoles contained the flagella of differentiating zoospores.
Vercesi, A., Tornaghi, R., Sant, S., Burruano, S., Franco, F.A cytological and ultrastructural sudy on the maturation and germination of oospores of Plasmopara viticola from overwintering vine leaves. MYCOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 103, 193-202 [10.1017/SO95375629800700].