Background Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescent. Surgery and multidrug chemotherapy are the standard of treatment achieving 60-70% of event-free survival for localized disease at diagnosis. However, for metastatic disease, the prognosis is dismal. Exploiting immune system activation in the setting of such unfavorable mesenchymal tumors represents a new therapeutic challenge. Methods In immune competent OS mouse models bearing two contralateral lesions, we tested the efficacy of intralesional administration of a TLR9 agonist against the treated and not treated contralateral lesion evaluating abscopal effect. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to evaluate changes of the tumor immune microenviroment. Experiments in immune- deficient mice allowed the investigation of the role of adaptive T cells in TLR9 agonist effects, while T cell receptor sequencing was used to assess the expansion of specific T cell clones. Results TLR9 agonist strongly impaired the growth of locally-treated tumors and its therapeutic effect also extended to the contralateral, untreated lesion. Multiparametric flow cytometry showed conspicuous changes in the immune landscape of the OS immune microenvironment upon TLR9 engagement, involving a reduction in M2-like macrophages, paralleled by increased infiltration of dendritic cells and activated CD8 T cells in both lesions. Remarkably, CD8 T cells were needed for the induction of the abscopal effect, whereas they were not strictly necessary for halting the growth of the treated lesion. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells showed the expansion of specific TCR clones in the treated tumors and, remarkably, their selected representation in the contralateral untreated lesions, providing the first evidence of the rewiring of tumor-associated T cell clonal architectures. Conclusions Overall these data indicate that the TLR9 agonist acts as an in situ anti-tumor vaccine, activating an innate immune response sufficient to suppress local tumor growth while inducing a systemic adaptive immunity with selective expansion of CD8 T cell clones, which are needed for the abscopal effect.

Cascini, C., Ratti, C., Botti, L., Parma, B., Cancila, V., Salvaggio, A., et al. (2023). Rewiring innate and adaptive immunity with TLR9 agonist to treat osteosarcoma. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 42(1), 154 [10.1186/s13046-023-02731-z].

Rewiring innate and adaptive immunity with TLR9 agonist to treat osteosarcoma

Cancila, Valeria;Tripodo, Claudio;
2023-06-26

Abstract

Background Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescent. Surgery and multidrug chemotherapy are the standard of treatment achieving 60-70% of event-free survival for localized disease at diagnosis. However, for metastatic disease, the prognosis is dismal. Exploiting immune system activation in the setting of such unfavorable mesenchymal tumors represents a new therapeutic challenge. Methods In immune competent OS mouse models bearing two contralateral lesions, we tested the efficacy of intralesional administration of a TLR9 agonist against the treated and not treated contralateral lesion evaluating abscopal effect. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to evaluate changes of the tumor immune microenviroment. Experiments in immune- deficient mice allowed the investigation of the role of adaptive T cells in TLR9 agonist effects, while T cell receptor sequencing was used to assess the expansion of specific T cell clones. Results TLR9 agonist strongly impaired the growth of locally-treated tumors and its therapeutic effect also extended to the contralateral, untreated lesion. Multiparametric flow cytometry showed conspicuous changes in the immune landscape of the OS immune microenvironment upon TLR9 engagement, involving a reduction in M2-like macrophages, paralleled by increased infiltration of dendritic cells and activated CD8 T cells in both lesions. Remarkably, CD8 T cells were needed for the induction of the abscopal effect, whereas they were not strictly necessary for halting the growth of the treated lesion. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells showed the expansion of specific TCR clones in the treated tumors and, remarkably, their selected representation in the contralateral untreated lesions, providing the first evidence of the rewiring of tumor-associated T cell clonal architectures. Conclusions Overall these data indicate that the TLR9 agonist acts as an in situ anti-tumor vaccine, activating an innate immune response sufficient to suppress local tumor growth while inducing a systemic adaptive immunity with selective expansion of CD8 T cell clones, which are needed for the abscopal effect.
26-giu-2023
Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica
Settore MED/05 - Patologia Clinica
Cascini, C., Ratti, C., Botti, L., Parma, B., Cancila, V., Salvaggio, A., et al. (2023). Rewiring innate and adaptive immunity with TLR9 agonist to treat osteosarcoma. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 42(1), 154 [10.1186/s13046-023-02731-z].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/603474
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