Understanding how different areas of the human brain communicate with each other is a crucial issue in neuroscience. The concepts of structural, functional and effective connectivity have been widely exploited to describe the human connectome, consisting of brain networks, their structural connections and functional interactions. Despite high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) being widely used to map this complex network of multiple interactions, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings claim high temporal resolution and are thus perfectly suitable to describe either spatially distributed and temporally dynamic patterns of neural activation and connectivity. In this work, we provide a technical account and a categorization of the most-used data-driven approaches to assess brain-functional connectivity, intended as the study of the statistical dependencies between the recorded EEG signals. Different pairwise and multivariate, as well as directed and non-directed connectivity metrics are discussed with a pros-cons approach, in the time, frequency, and information-theoretic domains. The establishment of conceptual and mathematical relationships between metrics from these three frameworks, and the discussion of novel methodological approaches, will allow the reader to go deep into the problem of inferring functional connectivity in complex networks. Furthermore, emerging trends for the description of extended forms of connectivity (e.g., high-order interactions) are also discussed, along with graph-theory tools exploring the topological properties of the network of connections provided by the proposed metrics. Applications to EEG data are reviewed. In addition, the importance of source localization, and the impacts of signal acquisition and pre-processing techniques (e.g., filtering, source localization, and artifact rejection) on the connectivity estimates are recognized and discussed. By going through this review, the reader could delve deeply into the entire process of EEG pre-processing and analysis for the study of brain functional connectivity and learning, thereby exploiting novel methodologies and approaches to the problem of inferring connectivity within complex networks.

Chiarion, G., Sparacino, L., Antonacci, Y., Faes, L., Mesin, L. (2023). Connectivity Analysis in EEG Data: A Tutorial Review of the State of the Art and Emerging Trends. BIOENGINEERING, 10(3), 372 [10.3390/bioengineering10030372].

Connectivity Analysis in EEG Data: A Tutorial Review of the State of the Art and Emerging Trends

Sparacino, Laura;Antonacci, Yuri;Faes, Luca;
2023-03-17

Abstract

Understanding how different areas of the human brain communicate with each other is a crucial issue in neuroscience. The concepts of structural, functional and effective connectivity have been widely exploited to describe the human connectome, consisting of brain networks, their structural connections and functional interactions. Despite high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) being widely used to map this complex network of multiple interactions, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings claim high temporal resolution and are thus perfectly suitable to describe either spatially distributed and temporally dynamic patterns of neural activation and connectivity. In this work, we provide a technical account and a categorization of the most-used data-driven approaches to assess brain-functional connectivity, intended as the study of the statistical dependencies between the recorded EEG signals. Different pairwise and multivariate, as well as directed and non-directed connectivity metrics are discussed with a pros-cons approach, in the time, frequency, and information-theoretic domains. The establishment of conceptual and mathematical relationships between metrics from these three frameworks, and the discussion of novel methodological approaches, will allow the reader to go deep into the problem of inferring functional connectivity in complex networks. Furthermore, emerging trends for the description of extended forms of connectivity (e.g., high-order interactions) are also discussed, along with graph-theory tools exploring the topological properties of the network of connections provided by the proposed metrics. Applications to EEG data are reviewed. In addition, the importance of source localization, and the impacts of signal acquisition and pre-processing techniques (e.g., filtering, source localization, and artifact rejection) on the connectivity estimates are recognized and discussed. By going through this review, the reader could delve deeply into the entire process of EEG pre-processing and analysis for the study of brain functional connectivity and learning, thereby exploiting novel methodologies and approaches to the problem of inferring connectivity within complex networks.
17-mar-2023
Settore ING-INF/06 - Bioingegneria Elettronica E Informatica
Chiarion, G., Sparacino, L., Antonacci, Y., Faes, L., Mesin, L. (2023). Connectivity Analysis in EEG Data: A Tutorial Review of the State of the Art and Emerging Trends. BIOENGINEERING, 10(3), 372 [10.3390/bioengineering10030372].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/587075
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