Eryptosis is a physiological mechanism for the clearance of senescent or damaged erythrocytes by phagocytes. Excessive eryptosis is stimulated under several pathologies and associated with endothelial injury and thrombosis. Cigarette smoke (CS) is an established risk factor for vascular diseases and cigarette smokers have high-levels of eryptotic erythrocytes. This study, for the first time, investigates the mechanism by which CS damages red blood cells (RBCs). CS extract (CSE) from commercial cigarettes was prepared and standardized for nicotine content. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated that treatment of human RBCs with CSE caused dose-dependent, phosphatidylserine externalization and cell shrinkage, hallmarks of apoptotic death. CSE did not affect cellular levels of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or glutathione (GSH). Immununoprecipitation and immunoblotting revealed the assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and oligomerization of Fas receptor as well as cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-3 within 6 h from the treatment. At the same time-interval, CSE elicited neutral sphyngomielinase (nSMase) activity-dependent ceramide formation and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Through specific inhibitors' nSMase, caspase-8 or p38 MAPK activities, we demonstrated that p38 MAPK activation is required for caspase-8-mediated eryptosis and that ceramide generation is initiator caspase-dependent. Finally, ex vivo analysis detected phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38) and Fas-associated signaling complex in erythrocytes from cigarette smokers. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that CSE exposure induces in erythrocytes an extrinsic apoptotic pathway involving p38 MAPK-initiated DISC formation followed by activation of caspase-8/caspase-3 via ceramide formation.

Restivo, I., Attanzio, A., Giardina, I.C., Di Gaudio, F., Tesoriere, L., Allegra, M. (2022). Cigarette Smoke Extract Induces p38 MAPK-Initiated, Fas-Mediated Eryptosis. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 23(23), 1-16 [10.3390/ijms232314730].

Cigarette Smoke Extract Induces p38 MAPK-Initiated, Fas-Mediated Eryptosis

Restivo, Ignazio
Primo
;
Attanzio, Alessandro
Secondo
;
Giardina, Ilenia Concetta;Di Gaudio, Francesca;Tesoriere, Luisa;Allegra, Mario
Ultimo
2022-11-25

Abstract

Eryptosis is a physiological mechanism for the clearance of senescent or damaged erythrocytes by phagocytes. Excessive eryptosis is stimulated under several pathologies and associated with endothelial injury and thrombosis. Cigarette smoke (CS) is an established risk factor for vascular diseases and cigarette smokers have high-levels of eryptotic erythrocytes. This study, for the first time, investigates the mechanism by which CS damages red blood cells (RBCs). CS extract (CSE) from commercial cigarettes was prepared and standardized for nicotine content. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated that treatment of human RBCs with CSE caused dose-dependent, phosphatidylserine externalization and cell shrinkage, hallmarks of apoptotic death. CSE did not affect cellular levels of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or glutathione (GSH). Immununoprecipitation and immunoblotting revealed the assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and oligomerization of Fas receptor as well as cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-3 within 6 h from the treatment. At the same time-interval, CSE elicited neutral sphyngomielinase (nSMase) activity-dependent ceramide formation and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Through specific inhibitors' nSMase, caspase-8 or p38 MAPK activities, we demonstrated that p38 MAPK activation is required for caspase-8-mediated eryptosis and that ceramide generation is initiator caspase-dependent. Finally, ex vivo analysis detected phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38) and Fas-associated signaling complex in erythrocytes from cigarette smokers. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that CSE exposure induces in erythrocytes an extrinsic apoptotic pathway involving p38 MAPK-initiated DISC formation followed by activation of caspase-8/caspase-3 via ceramide formation.
25-nov-2022
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
Restivo, I., Attanzio, A., Giardina, I.C., Di Gaudio, F., Tesoriere, L., Allegra, M. (2022). Cigarette Smoke Extract Induces p38 MAPK-Initiated, Fas-Mediated Eryptosis. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 23(23), 1-16 [10.3390/ijms232314730].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/579870
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