Objectives Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population. We aimed to assess the impact of NAFLD and liver fibrosis on intermediate-high cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV. Methods We included people living with HIV from three cohorts. NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis were defined using transient elastography: controlled attenuation parameter >= 288 dB/m and liver stiffness measurement >= 7.1 kPa, respectively. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimator in patients aged between 40 and 75 years and categorised as low if <5%, borderline if 5%-7.4%, intermediate if 7.5%-19.9% and high if >= 20% or with the presence of a previous cardiovascular event. Patients with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection, alcohol abuse and unreliable transient elastography measurements were excluded. Predictors of intermediate-high cardiovascular risk were investigated in multivariable analysis by logistic regression and also by stratifying according to body mass index (BMI; cut-offs of 25 and 30 kg/m(2)) and age (cut-off of 60 years). Results Of 941 patients with HIV alone included, 423 (45%), 128 (13.6%), 260 (27.6%) and 130 (13.8%) were categorised as at low, borderline, intermediate and high ASCVD risk, respectively. Predictors of intermediate-high ASCVD risk were NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.18; p < 0.001), liver fibrosis (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.03-2.59; p = 0.034), duration of HIV (aOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06; p < 0.001), and previous exposure to thymidine analogues and/or didanosine (aOR 1.54; 95% CI 1.09-2.18; p = 0.014). NAFLD was also associated with higher cardiovascular risk in normoweight patients (aOR 2.97; 95% CI 1.43-6.16; p = 0.003), in those with BMI <30 kg/m(2) (aOR 2.30; 95% CI 1.46-3.61; p < 0.001) and in those aged <60 years (aOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.36-3.54; p = 0.001). Conclusion Assessment of cardiovascular disease should be targeted in people living with HIV with NAFLD and/or significant liver fibrosis, even if they are normoweight and young.

Cervo, A., Sebastiani, G., Milic, J., Krahn, T., Mazzola, S., Petta, S., et al. (2022). "Dangerous liaisons: NAFLD and liver fibrosis increase cardiovascular risk in HIV". HIV MEDICINE, 23(8), 911-921 [10.1111/hiv.13274].

"Dangerous liaisons: NAFLD and liver fibrosis increase cardiovascular risk in HIV"

Petta, Salvatore;Cascio, Antonio;
2022-09-01

Abstract

Objectives Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population. We aimed to assess the impact of NAFLD and liver fibrosis on intermediate-high cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV. Methods We included people living with HIV from three cohorts. NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis were defined using transient elastography: controlled attenuation parameter >= 288 dB/m and liver stiffness measurement >= 7.1 kPa, respectively. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimator in patients aged between 40 and 75 years and categorised as low if <5%, borderline if 5%-7.4%, intermediate if 7.5%-19.9% and high if >= 20% or with the presence of a previous cardiovascular event. Patients with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection, alcohol abuse and unreliable transient elastography measurements were excluded. Predictors of intermediate-high cardiovascular risk were investigated in multivariable analysis by logistic regression and also by stratifying according to body mass index (BMI; cut-offs of 25 and 30 kg/m(2)) and age (cut-off of 60 years). Results Of 941 patients with HIV alone included, 423 (45%), 128 (13.6%), 260 (27.6%) and 130 (13.8%) were categorised as at low, borderline, intermediate and high ASCVD risk, respectively. Predictors of intermediate-high ASCVD risk were NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.18; p < 0.001), liver fibrosis (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.03-2.59; p = 0.034), duration of HIV (aOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.06; p < 0.001), and previous exposure to thymidine analogues and/or didanosine (aOR 1.54; 95% CI 1.09-2.18; p = 0.014). NAFLD was also associated with higher cardiovascular risk in normoweight patients (aOR 2.97; 95% CI 1.43-6.16; p = 0.003), in those with BMI <30 kg/m(2) (aOR 2.30; 95% CI 1.46-3.61; p < 0.001) and in those aged <60 years (aOR 2.19; 95% CI 1.36-3.54; p = 0.001). Conclusion Assessment of cardiovascular disease should be targeted in people living with HIV with NAFLD and/or significant liver fibrosis, even if they are normoweight and young.
Cervo, A., Sebastiani, G., Milic, J., Krahn, T., Mazzola, S., Petta, S., et al. (2022). "Dangerous liaisons: NAFLD and liver fibrosis increase cardiovascular risk in HIV". HIV MEDICINE, 23(8), 911-921 [10.1111/hiv.13274].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/574600
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