Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates belonging to the earliest branch (Tunicata) in the chordate phylum, therefore, they are of interest for studying the evolution of immune systems. Due to the known genome, the non-colonial Ciona robusta, previously considered to be C. intestinalis type A, is a model species for the study of inflammatory response. The internal defense of ascidians mainly relies on hemocytes circulating in the hemolymph and pharynx. Hemocytes can be in vivo challenged by LPS injection and various granulocyte and vacuolated cell populations differentiated to produce and release inflammatory factors. Molecular biology and gene expression studies revealed complex defense mechanisms involving different inflammatory hemocytes. Furthermore, cloning procedures allowed sequence analyses and molecular studies disclose immune-related gene families including TOLL-like receptors, galectins, C-type lectins, collectins, interlectins, pentraxine-like, peroxinectins, complement factors-like, TNFα-like, IL-17-like, TGF-like, MIF-like. These genes are promptly upregulated by the inflammatory stimulus and show a time course of transcription similar to each other. Domains sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships with the vertebrate counterparts are shedding some light on immune-related gene evolution. Selective bioassays as well as bioinformatic approaches have allowed the characterization of antimicrobial peptides and the identification of post transcriptional molecular mechanisms able of influencing dynamics of gene regulation are described. In synthesis, the purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of hemocyte and molecules related to internal defence of ascidians involved in the inflammatory reaction, as well as to discuss current and future study options through a detailed literature review.

Longo V., Parrinello D., Longo A., Parisi M.G., Parrinello N., Colombo P., et al. (2021). The conservation and diversity of ascidian cells and molecules involved in the inflammatory reaction: The Ciona robusta model. FISH AND SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, 119, 384-396 [10.1016/j.fsi.2021.10.022].

The conservation and diversity of ascidian cells and molecules involved in the inflammatory reaction: The Ciona robusta model

Parrinello D.
Secondo
;
Parisi M. G.;Parrinello N.;Cammarata M.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates belonging to the earliest branch (Tunicata) in the chordate phylum, therefore, they are of interest for studying the evolution of immune systems. Due to the known genome, the non-colonial Ciona robusta, previously considered to be C. intestinalis type A, is a model species for the study of inflammatory response. The internal defense of ascidians mainly relies on hemocytes circulating in the hemolymph and pharynx. Hemocytes can be in vivo challenged by LPS injection and various granulocyte and vacuolated cell populations differentiated to produce and release inflammatory factors. Molecular biology and gene expression studies revealed complex defense mechanisms involving different inflammatory hemocytes. Furthermore, cloning procedures allowed sequence analyses and molecular studies disclose immune-related gene families including TOLL-like receptors, galectins, C-type lectins, collectins, interlectins, pentraxine-like, peroxinectins, complement factors-like, TNFα-like, IL-17-like, TGF-like, MIF-like. These genes are promptly upregulated by the inflammatory stimulus and show a time course of transcription similar to each other. Domains sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships with the vertebrate counterparts are shedding some light on immune-related gene evolution. Selective bioassays as well as bioinformatic approaches have allowed the characterization of antimicrobial peptides and the identification of post transcriptional molecular mechanisms able of influencing dynamics of gene regulation are described. In synthesis, the purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of hemocyte and molecules related to internal defence of ascidians involved in the inflammatory reaction, as well as to discuss current and future study options through a detailed literature review.
Settore BIO/05 - Zoologia
Longo V., Parrinello D., Longo A., Parisi M.G., Parrinello N., Colombo P., et al. (2021). The conservation and diversity of ascidian cells and molecules involved in the inflammatory reaction: The Ciona robusta model. FISH AND SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY, 119, 384-396 [10.1016/j.fsi.2021.10.022].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/537855
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