Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has recently been described in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This report describes 2 children with MIS-C who were initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome but who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, supporting the diagnosis of MIS-C. Case Reports: Case 1. A 7-year-old boy with fever, cough, and dyspnea was treated with oxygen, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion, and methylprednisolone and showed a worsening of clinical conditions, persistent fever, hypotension, and hematological parameters compatible with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Three intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) were followed by a progressive resolution. Case 2. A 14-year-old girl with syncope, fever, diarrhea, oliguria, and increased creatinine levels required fluid infusion and correction of electrolyte imbalance. The increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobin, troponin, and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was associated with grade I atrioventricular block and pericardial effusion. The patient showed myositis and severe muscular weakness, with hematological parameters compatible with MIS-C. She started IVIG and 3 intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone. However, bradycardia, tachypnea, severe hypotension, loss of consciousness, oliguria, bilateral ground-glass pneumonia, bilateral pleural, and peritoneal effusion, in the absence of thromboembolism, required treatment with furosemide, albumin, and enoxaparin, and was followed by a prompt resolution. Conclusions: These 2 pediatric cases highlight the importance of SARS-CoV-2 testing in all patients with acute symptoms and signs of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 emerge, cases of MIS-C can become more prevalent, and pediatricians should be aware of diagnostic and management guidelines.

Giordano S., Failla M.C., Cavoli M.G.L., Romano D., Vanella V., Caruso C., et al. (2021). A 7-year-old boy and a 14-year-old girl initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome and tested positive for sars-cov-2 infection, supporting a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (Mis-c). THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CASE REPORTS, 22(1) [10.12659/AJCR.931570].

A 7-year-old boy and a 14-year-old girl initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome and tested positive for sars-cov-2 infection, supporting a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (Mis-c)

Romano D.;Vanella V.;Caruso C.;Chillura I.;Maggio M. C.
2021

Abstract

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has recently been described in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This report describes 2 children with MIS-C who were initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome but who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, supporting the diagnosis of MIS-C. Case Reports: Case 1. A 7-year-old boy with fever, cough, and dyspnea was treated with oxygen, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion, and methylprednisolone and showed a worsening of clinical conditions, persistent fever, hypotension, and hematological parameters compatible with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Three intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) were followed by a progressive resolution. Case 2. A 14-year-old girl with syncope, fever, diarrhea, oliguria, and increased creatinine levels required fluid infusion and correction of electrolyte imbalance. The increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobin, troponin, and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was associated with grade I atrioventricular block and pericardial effusion. The patient showed myositis and severe muscular weakness, with hematological parameters compatible with MIS-C. She started IVIG and 3 intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone. However, bradycardia, tachypnea, severe hypotension, loss of consciousness, oliguria, bilateral ground-glass pneumonia, bilateral pleural, and peritoneal effusion, in the absence of thromboembolism, required treatment with furosemide, albumin, and enoxaparin, and was followed by a prompt resolution. Conclusions: These 2 pediatric cases highlight the importance of SARS-CoV-2 testing in all patients with acute symptoms and signs of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 emerge, cases of MIS-C can become more prevalent, and pediatricians should be aware of diagnostic and management guidelines.
Giordano S., Failla M.C., Cavoli M.G.L., Romano D., Vanella V., Caruso C., et al. (2021). A 7-year-old boy and a 14-year-old girl initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome and tested positive for sars-cov-2 infection, supporting a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (Mis-c). THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CASE REPORTS, 22(1) [10.12659/AJCR.931570].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/528151
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