Worldwide, the determination of the coordinates from a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) survey (in Network Real Time Kinematic, Precise Point Positioning, or static mode) has been analysed in several scientific and technical applications. Many of those have been carried out to compare Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK), and static modes’ solutions, usually, using the latter as the true or the most plausible solution. This approach is not always possible as the static mode solution depends on several parameters (baseline length, acquisition time, ionospheric, and tropospheric models, etc.) that must be considered to evaluate the accuracy of the method. This work aims to show the comparison among the GNSS survey methods mentioned above, using some benchmark points. The tests were carried out by comparing the survey methods in pairs to check their solutions congruence. The NRTK and the static solutions refer to a local GNSS CORS network’s analysis. The NRTK positioning has been obtained with different methods (VRS, FKP, NEA) and the PPP solution has been calculated with two different software (RTKLIB and CSRS-PPP). A statistical approach has been performed to check if the distribution frequencies of the coordinate’s residual belong to the normal distribution, for all pairs analysed. The results show that the hypothesis of a normal distribution is confirmed in most of the pairs and, specifically, the Static vs. NRTK pair seems to achieve the best congruence, while involving the PPP approach, pairs obtained with CSRS software achieve better congruence than those involving RTKLIB software.

Dardanelli G, Maltese A, Pipitone C, Pisciotta A, Lo Brutto M (2021). Nrtk, ppp or static, that is the question. Testing different positioning solutions for gnss survey. REMOTE SENSING, 13(7), 1-19 [10.3390/rs13071406].

Nrtk, ppp or static, that is the question. Testing different positioning solutions for gnss survey

Dardanelli G
;
Maltese A;Pipitone C;Lo Brutto M
2021-01-01

Abstract

Worldwide, the determination of the coordinates from a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) survey (in Network Real Time Kinematic, Precise Point Positioning, or static mode) has been analysed in several scientific and technical applications. Many of those have been carried out to compare Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK), and static modes’ solutions, usually, using the latter as the true or the most plausible solution. This approach is not always possible as the static mode solution depends on several parameters (baseline length, acquisition time, ionospheric, and tropospheric models, etc.) that must be considered to evaluate the accuracy of the method. This work aims to show the comparison among the GNSS survey methods mentioned above, using some benchmark points. The tests were carried out by comparing the survey methods in pairs to check their solutions congruence. The NRTK and the static solutions refer to a local GNSS CORS network’s analysis. The NRTK positioning has been obtained with different methods (VRS, FKP, NEA) and the PPP solution has been calculated with two different software (RTKLIB and CSRS-PPP). A statistical approach has been performed to check if the distribution frequencies of the coordinate’s residual belong to the normal distribution, for all pairs analysed. The results show that the hypothesis of a normal distribution is confirmed in most of the pairs and, specifically, the Static vs. NRTK pair seems to achieve the best congruence, while involving the PPP approach, pairs obtained with CSRS software achieve better congruence than those involving RTKLIB software.
Settore ICAR/06 - Topografia E Cartografia
Dardanelli G, Maltese A, Pipitone C, Pisciotta A, Lo Brutto M (2021). Nrtk, ppp or static, that is the question. Testing different positioning solutions for gnss survey. REMOTE SENSING, 13(7), 1-19 [10.3390/rs13071406].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/507726
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