Background: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a unicellular cyanobacterium considered to be a “superfood” for its complete nutritional profile and beneficial properties. We investigated possible beneficial effects of an AFA extract, commercialized as AphaMax®, containing concentrated amount of phycocyanins and phytochrome, in 2,4 dinitrobenzensulfonic acid(DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods: Effects of preventive oral treatment of AphaMax® (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) in colitic rats were assessed and then macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed to evaluate the inflammation degree. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and NF-κB, pro-inflammatory citockines, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible NOS (iNOS) levels of expression were determined, as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and nitrite levels. Results: AphaMax® treatment attenuated the severity of colitis ameliorating clinical signs. AphaMax® reduced the histological colonic damage and decreased MPO activity, NF-κB activation, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. AphaMax® treatment improved the altered immune response associated with colonic inflammation reducing IL-1β, IL-6 expression. Lastly, AphaMax® reduced oxidative stress, decreasing ROS and nitrite levels. Conclusions: Preventive treatment with AphaMax® attenuates the severity of the inflammation in DNBS colitis rats involving decrease of the NF-kB activation, reduction of iNOS and COX-2 expression, and inhibition of oxidative stress. Due its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties AphaMax® could be a good candidate as a complementary drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment.

Zizzo M.G., Caldara G., Bellanca A., Nuzzo D., Di Carlo M., Scoglio S., et al. (2020). AphaMax®, an aphanizomenon flos-aquae aqueous extract, exerts intestinal protective effects in experimental colitis in rats. NUTRIENTS, 12(12), 1-16 [10.3390/nu12123635].

AphaMax®, an aphanizomenon flos-aquae aqueous extract, exerts intestinal protective effects in experimental colitis in rats

Zizzo M. G.
;
Caldara G.;Nuzzo D.;Di Carlo M.;Serio R.
2020-11-26

Abstract

Background: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a unicellular cyanobacterium considered to be a “superfood” for its complete nutritional profile and beneficial properties. We investigated possible beneficial effects of an AFA extract, commercialized as AphaMax®, containing concentrated amount of phycocyanins and phytochrome, in 2,4 dinitrobenzensulfonic acid(DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods: Effects of preventive oral treatment of AphaMax® (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) in colitic rats were assessed and then macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed to evaluate the inflammation degree. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and NF-κB, pro-inflammatory citockines, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible NOS (iNOS) levels of expression were determined, as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and nitrite levels. Results: AphaMax® treatment attenuated the severity of colitis ameliorating clinical signs. AphaMax® reduced the histological colonic damage and decreased MPO activity, NF-κB activation, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. AphaMax® treatment improved the altered immune response associated with colonic inflammation reducing IL-1β, IL-6 expression. Lastly, AphaMax® reduced oxidative stress, decreasing ROS and nitrite levels. Conclusions: Preventive treatment with AphaMax® attenuates the severity of the inflammation in DNBS colitis rats involving decrease of the NF-kB activation, reduction of iNOS and COX-2 expression, and inhibition of oxidative stress. Due its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties AphaMax® could be a good candidate as a complementary drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment.
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/12/3635
Zizzo M.G., Caldara G., Bellanca A., Nuzzo D., Di Carlo M., Scoglio S., et al. (2020). AphaMax®, an aphanizomenon flos-aquae aqueous extract, exerts intestinal protective effects in experimental colitis in rats. NUTRIENTS, 12(12), 1-16 [10.3390/nu12123635].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/459439
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