The close phylogenetic relationship between Ciona robusta and vertebrates makes it a powerful model for studying innate immunity and the evolution of immune genes. To elucidate the nature and dynamics of the immune response, the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial infection is detected and translated into inflammation and how potential pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in pathogen recognition in tunicate C. robusta (formerly known as Ciona intestinalis), we applied an approach combining bacterial infections, next-generation sequencing, qRT-PCR, bioinformatics and in silico analyses (criteria of a p-value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). A STRING analysis indicated a functional link between components of the Tlr/MyD88-dependent signalling pathway (Tlr2, MyD88, and Irak4) and components of the Nf-κB signalling pathway (Nf-κB, IκBα, and Ikkα) (p-value < 0.05, FDR < 0.05). A qRT-PCR analysis of immune genes selected from transcriptome data revealed Mif as more frequently expressed in the inflammatory response than inflammation mediator or effector molecules (e.g., Il-17s, Tnf-α, Tgf-β, Mmp9, Tlrs, MyD88, Irak4, Nf-κB, and galectins), suggesting close interplay between Mif cytokines and Nf-κB signalling pathway components in the biphasic activation of the inflammatory response. An in silico analyses of the 3′-UTR of Tlr2, MyD88, IκBα, Ikk, and Nf-κB transcripts showed the presence of GAIT elements, which are known to play key roles in the regulation of immune gene-specific translation in humans. These findings provide a new level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the C. robusta inflammatory response induced by LPS and suggest that in C. robusta, as in humans, a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanism is involved in the regulation of several inflammatory genes.

Vincenzo Arizza, Angela Bonura, Laura La Paglia, Alfonso Urso, Annalisa Pinsino, & Aiti vizzini (2020). Transcriptional and in silico analyses of MIF cytokine and TLR signalling interplay in the LPS inflammatory response of Ciona robusta. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1).

Transcriptional and in silico analyses of MIF cytokine and TLR signalling interplay in the LPS inflammatory response of Ciona robusta

Vincenzo Arizza;Aiti vizzini
2020

Abstract

The close phylogenetic relationship between Ciona robusta and vertebrates makes it a powerful model for studying innate immunity and the evolution of immune genes. To elucidate the nature and dynamics of the immune response, the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial infection is detected and translated into inflammation and how potential pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in pathogen recognition in tunicate C. robusta (formerly known as Ciona intestinalis), we applied an approach combining bacterial infections, next-generation sequencing, qRT-PCR, bioinformatics and in silico analyses (criteria of a p-value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). A STRING analysis indicated a functional link between components of the Tlr/MyD88-dependent signalling pathway (Tlr2, MyD88, and Irak4) and components of the Nf-κB signalling pathway (Nf-κB, IκBα, and Ikkα) (p-value < 0.05, FDR < 0.05). A qRT-PCR analysis of immune genes selected from transcriptome data revealed Mif as more frequently expressed in the inflammatory response than inflammation mediator or effector molecules (e.g., Il-17s, Tnf-α, Tgf-β, Mmp9, Tlrs, MyD88, Irak4, Nf-κB, and galectins), suggesting close interplay between Mif cytokines and Nf-κB signalling pathway components in the biphasic activation of the inflammatory response. An in silico analyses of the 3′-UTR of Tlr2, MyD88, IκBα, Ikk, and Nf-κB transcripts showed the presence of GAIT elements, which are known to play key roles in the regulation of immune gene-specific translation in humans. These findings provide a new level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the C. robusta inflammatory response induced by LPS and suggest that in C. robusta, as in humans, a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanism is involved in the regulation of several inflammatory genes.
Vincenzo Arizza, Angela Bonura, Laura La Paglia, Alfonso Urso, Annalisa Pinsino, & Aiti vizzini (2020). Transcriptional and in silico analyses of MIF cytokine and TLR signalling interplay in the LPS inflammatory response of Ciona robusta. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/434195
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