In this doctoral thesis are discussed a series of scientific issues regarding citrus fruits production and processing, species of particular relevance in Sicily and in the Mediterranean area. Objectives and research activities addressed in this thesis were agreed with the citrus industry "EuroFood" and financed by the research project "PON industrial Ph.D. - a.a. 2016/2017". The research project was targeted to study the traceability and sustainability of citrus production, and to find new applications to the by-products and waste products of citrus industry with the objective of appreciate and enhance the Sicilian citrus industry. The following topics are addressed and developed in this thesis: - Characterization of the bioactive compounds present in essential oils (EOs) and in the hydrolate of different citrus species. - Monitoring of the effect of controlled water stress on the production of EOs in leaves and flowers of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. ‘Sanguinelli’ and Citrus × clementina cv. ‘Clemenules’; -Test the phytotoxic effects of citrus EOs on four important weed species in the Mediterranean area, two monocotyledon (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. and Avena fatua L.) and two dicotyledon (Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Portulaca oleracea L.) by different experiments in vitro and in greenhouse conditions; -Evaluation of the effect as natural biostimulants of wastewaters from citrus processing industry by its application on soil microbial community; -Quantification of rare earth elements in lemon fruits from different geographical areas for its possible use as geochemical tracers applied to lemon production. Different Citrus EOs have been characterized in this study and it has been verified that the oils produced by the pruning waste could be used for the extraction of EOs with high yields. In addition, nutraceutical and pharmacological substances have been found in the orange industrial hydrolates. II Industrial lemon EO showed good potential when testing its herbicidal activity. Lemon EO represents a good basis for the development of herbicides of natural origin, biodegradable and eco-friendly. Thanks to the application of water stress after the winter vegetative restart, a conclusion found was that water stress increased the diameter of the fruit and it was observed that the effects of stress were not immediate on citrus trees, but were evident after some time. The study of the application of lemon, orange and mandarin hydrolates in the soil, as irrigation water provided the effects on stable and labile soil C pools, on biomass and microbial activity and on main microbial groups. Overall, hydrolates can play a role in sustainable agriculture because when added to a soil, they improve soil quality and fertility. The Rare Earth Element model could be used as a tool to connect lemon production to the soil where they were produced, for a possible geographical characterization and a direct link between the production and the territory or soil. The results obtained were very interesting because: - they provided the means for sustainable agriculture; - they increased the value of the by-products and waste products of the citrus industry; - they proposed applications for the citrus production and transformation cycle being more sustainable; - they could valorize the Sicilian lemons by linking them to their production area. These results could have practical repercussions in the production cycle of citrus fruits and give a boost to the Sicilian citrus fruit sector.
(2020). Valorization of Citrus spp. Cultivars cultivated in Sicily for the industrial use of citrus derivatives and in particular for potential alternative uses of essential oils for the enhancement of the island's citrus production.
|Titolo:||Valorization of Citrus spp. Cultivars cultivated in Sicily for the industrial use of citrus derivatives and in particular for potential alternative uses of essential oils for the enhancement of the island's citrus production|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ott-2020|
|Citazione:||(2020). Valorization of Citrus spp. Cultivars cultivated in Sicily for the industrial use of citrus derivatives and in particular for potential alternative uses of essential oils for the enhancement of the island's citrus production.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||4.2 Tesi di dottorato|