Background: Since 1985, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses (Victoria-like and Yamagata-like) have circulated globally. Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain two circulating influenza A strains but a single B strain and thus provide limited immunity against circulating B strains of the lineage not included in the vaccine. In this study, we describe the characteristics of influenza B viruses that caused respiratory illness in the population in Italy over 13 consecutive seasons of virological surveillance, and the match between the predominant influenza B lineage and the vaccine B lineage, in each season. Methods: From 2004 to 2017, 26,886 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were registered in Italy, of which 18.7% were type B. Among them, the lineage of 2465 strains (49%) was retrieved or characterized in this study by a real- time RT-PCR assay and/or sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Results: Co-circulation of both B lineages was observed each season, although in different proportions every year. Overall, viruses of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages caused 53.3 and 46.7% of influenza B infections, respectively. A higher proportion of infections with both lineages was detected in children, and there was a declining frequency of B/Victoria detections with age. A mismatch between the vaccine and the predominant influenza B lineage occurred in eight out of thirteen influenza seasons under study. Considering the seasons when B accounted for > 20% of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, a mismatch was observed in four out of six seasons. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 domain confirmed the co-circulation of both lineages and revealed a mixed circulation of distinct evolutionary viral variants, with different levels of match to the vaccine strains. Conclusions: This study contributes to the understanding of the circulation of influenza B viruses in Italy. We found a continuous co-circulation of both B lineages in the period 2004–2017, and determined that children were particularly vulnerable to Victoria-lineage influenza B virus infections. An influenza B lineage mismatch with the trivalent vaccine occurred in about two-thirds of cases.

Puzelli S, D.M.A. (2019). Co-circulation of the two influenza B lineages during 13 consecutive influenza surveillance seasons in Italy, 2004–2017 Open Access. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 19(1), 990 [10.1186/s12879-019-4621-z].

Co-circulation of the two influenza B lineages during 13 consecutive influenza surveillance seasons in Italy, 2004–2017 Open Access

Tramuto F
Data Curation
;
Vitale F
Data Curation
2019-01-01

Abstract

Background: Since 1985, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses (Victoria-like and Yamagata-like) have circulated globally. Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain two circulating influenza A strains but a single B strain and thus provide limited immunity against circulating B strains of the lineage not included in the vaccine. In this study, we describe the characteristics of influenza B viruses that caused respiratory illness in the population in Italy over 13 consecutive seasons of virological surveillance, and the match between the predominant influenza B lineage and the vaccine B lineage, in each season. Methods: From 2004 to 2017, 26,886 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were registered in Italy, of which 18.7% were type B. Among them, the lineage of 2465 strains (49%) was retrieved or characterized in this study by a real- time RT-PCR assay and/or sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Results: Co-circulation of both B lineages was observed each season, although in different proportions every year. Overall, viruses of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages caused 53.3 and 46.7% of influenza B infections, respectively. A higher proportion of infections with both lineages was detected in children, and there was a declining frequency of B/Victoria detections with age. A mismatch between the vaccine and the predominant influenza B lineage occurred in eight out of thirteen influenza seasons under study. Considering the seasons when B accounted for > 20% of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, a mismatch was observed in four out of six seasons. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 domain confirmed the co-circulation of both lineages and revealed a mixed circulation of distinct evolutionary viral variants, with different levels of match to the vaccine strains. Conclusions: This study contributes to the understanding of the circulation of influenza B viruses in Italy. We found a continuous co-circulation of both B lineages in the period 2004–2017, and determined that children were particularly vulnerable to Victoria-lineage influenza B virus infections. An influenza B lineage mismatch with the trivalent vaccine occurred in about two-thirds of cases.
Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale E Applicata
Puzelli S, D.M.A. (2019). Co-circulation of the two influenza B lineages during 13 consecutive influenza surveillance seasons in Italy, 2004–2017 Open Access. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 19(1), 990 [10.1186/s12879-019-4621-z].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
s12879-019-4621-z.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale
Dimensione 1.44 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.44 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/391761
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 16
  • Scopus 20
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 17
social impact