Volcanic gas emission measurements inform predictions of hazard and atmospheric impacts. For these measurements, Multi-Gas sensors provide low-cost in situ monitoring of gas composition but to date have lacked the ability to detect halogens. Here, two Multi-Gas instruments characterized passive outgassing emissions from Mt. Etna’s (Italy) three summit craters, Voragine (VOR), North-east Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova (BN) on 2 October 2013. Signal processing (Sensor Response Model, SRM) approaches are used to analyse H2S/SO2 and HCl/SO2 ratios. A new ability to monitor volcanic HCl using miniature electrochemical sensors is here demonstrated. A “direct-exposure” Multi-Gas instrument contained SO2, H2S and HCl sensors, whose sensitivities, cross-sensitivities and response times were characterized by laboratory calibration. SRM analysis of the field data yields H2S/SO2 and HCl/SO2 molar ratios, finding H2S/SO2 = 0.02 (0.01–0.03), with distinct HCl/SO2 for the VOR, NEC and BN crater emissions of 0.41 (0.38–0.43), 0.58 (0.54–0.60) and 0.20 (0.17–0.33). A second Multi-Gas instrument provided CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 and enabled cross-comparison of SO2. The Multi-Gas-measured SO2-HCl-H2S-CO2-H2O compositions provide insights into volcanic outgassing. H2S/SO2 ratios indicate gas equilibration at slightly below magmatic temperatures, assuming that the magmatic redox state is preserved. Low SO2/HCl alongside low CO2/SO2 indicates a partially outgassed magma source. We highlight the potential for low-cost HCl sensing of H2S-poor HCl-rich volcanic emissions elsewhere. Further tests are needed for H2S-rich plumes and for long-term monitoring. Our study brings two new advances to volcano hazard monitoring: real-time in situ measurement of HCl and improved Multi-Gas SRM measurements of gas ratios.

Roberts, T., Lurton, T., Giudice, G., Liuzzo, M., Aiuppa, A., Coltelli, M., et al. (2017). Validation of a novel Multi-Gas sensor for volcanic HCl alongside H2S and SO2 at Mt. Etna. BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY, 79(5) [10.1007/s00445-017-1114-z].

Validation of a novel Multi-Gas sensor for volcanic HCl alongside H2S and SO2 at Mt. Etna

AIUPPA, Alessandro;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Volcanic gas emission measurements inform predictions of hazard and atmospheric impacts. For these measurements, Multi-Gas sensors provide low-cost in situ monitoring of gas composition but to date have lacked the ability to detect halogens. Here, two Multi-Gas instruments characterized passive outgassing emissions from Mt. Etna’s (Italy) three summit craters, Voragine (VOR), North-east Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova (BN) on 2 October 2013. Signal processing (Sensor Response Model, SRM) approaches are used to analyse H2S/SO2 and HCl/SO2 ratios. A new ability to monitor volcanic HCl using miniature electrochemical sensors is here demonstrated. A “direct-exposure” Multi-Gas instrument contained SO2, H2S and HCl sensors, whose sensitivities, cross-sensitivities and response times were characterized by laboratory calibration. SRM analysis of the field data yields H2S/SO2 and HCl/SO2 molar ratios, finding H2S/SO2 = 0.02 (0.01–0.03), with distinct HCl/SO2 for the VOR, NEC and BN crater emissions of 0.41 (0.38–0.43), 0.58 (0.54–0.60) and 0.20 (0.17–0.33). A second Multi-Gas instrument provided CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 and enabled cross-comparison of SO2. The Multi-Gas-measured SO2-HCl-H2S-CO2-H2O compositions provide insights into volcanic outgassing. H2S/SO2 ratios indicate gas equilibration at slightly below magmatic temperatures, assuming that the magmatic redox state is preserved. Low SO2/HCl alongside low CO2/SO2 indicates a partially outgassed magma source. We highlight the potential for low-cost HCl sensing of H2S-poor HCl-rich volcanic emissions elsewhere. Further tests are needed for H2S-rich plumes and for long-term monitoring. Our study brings two new advances to volcano hazard monitoring: real-time in situ measurement of HCl and improved Multi-Gas SRM measurements of gas ratios.
http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00445/index.htm
Roberts, T., Lurton, T., Giudice, G., Liuzzo, M., Aiuppa, A., Coltelli, M., et al. (2017). Validation of a novel Multi-Gas sensor for volcanic HCl alongside H2S and SO2 at Mt. Etna. BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY, 79(5) [10.1007/s00445-017-1114-z].
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Roberts et al 2017.pdf

Solo gestori archvio

Dimensione 2.42 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.42 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10447/226878
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 19
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 16
social impact