Weed infestation in agricultural fields can cause huge economic losses and low-quality crop yields. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. (barnyardgrass) is one of the greatest yields limiting weeds in rice cultivation systems. It is a cosmopolitan weed in both temperate and tropical regions and is reported as a weed in 36 different crops in 61 countries. The success of this weed may be attributed to the production of large numbers of small, easily dispersed seeds per plant, possession of seed dormancy, rapid development and ability to flower under a wide range of photoperiods, and relative resistance of mature plants to herbicide sprays. Thus, the best way to control barnyardgrass in an environmentally acceptable and sustainable approach is to develop eco-friendly and effective alternative means based on natural allelochemicals. Among the natural plant products, essential oils (EOs) constitute an important group. EOs may help reducing the use of synthetic herbicides and lead to less pollution and more safe agricultural products. Recently, the interest in exploring EOs with phytotoxic effects from aromatic plants for weed control has increased tremendously, because they do not persist in soil and do not leach into ground water. EOs extracted from Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav.; Mentha x piperita L.; and Santolina chamaecyparissus L. were reported to reduce the emergence and seedling growth of many weeds. The present investigation allows for a more detailed insight into the herbicidal activity of the previously mentioned EOs during spray foliar and irrigation application in post-emergence on E. crus-galli plants. T. capitata M. piperita and S. chamaecyparissus EOs were purchased from “Bordas Chinchurreta”, “Sigma-Aldrich” and and “Aromas de Ademuz”, respectively. Soil for the experiments was collected from the topsoil of a citrus field not treated with herbicides (Valencia, Spain), that was air-dried and sieved at 1 cm. E.crus-galli seeds were purchased from Herbiseed (England), and germinated in a germination-growth chamber at 30 ± 0.1 °C, 16 h in light and 20 ± 0.1 °C, 8 h in dark. Once the seedlings of E.crus-galli emerged, they were placed on pots (8x8x7 cm) filled with 2 cm of perlite at the bottom and 5 cm of the collected soil. Ten pots per treatment were prepared and placed in the greenhouse. In order to find the most effective dose of EOs and its adequate mode of application, different concentrations were used: 12, 16 and 20 µL/mL for Mentha and Santolina EOs and 4, 8 and 12 µL/mL for Thymbra EO. Fitoil was used as emulsifier at a concentration of 0.05% (v/v). Plants of barnyardgrass were treated at two-leaf stage by irrigating and spraying mode of application. To monitor the experiments, photos were taken after 24, 48 and 72 hours; and then once a week. The photos were processed with Digimizer software to obtain different data: efficacy of the treatment, level of damage, height of plants, weed plant fresh and dry weight.
|Titolo:||Herbicidal activity of essential oils extracted from different Mediterranean species against Echinochloa crus galli|
JOUINI, AMIRA [Investigation] (Corresponding)
LAUDICINA, Vito Armando [Supervision]
PALAZZOLO, Eristanna [Supervision]
|Appare nelle tipologie:||6.3 Poster non pubblicato|
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