In Chap. 6, dealing with pedodiversity of Italy, Edoardo A. C. Costantini, Roberto Barbetti, Maria Fantappie` , Giovanni L’Abate, Romina Lorenzetti, and Simona Magini illustrate the distribution of soil classes, mainly by means of maps. Soil regions on hills are the most lithologically and climatically variable environments, and host the greatest soil variability and endemisms. A vast majority of the WRB reference soil groups (25 out of 32), as well as soil orders of Soil Taxonomy (10 out of 12) are represented in the main Italian soil typological units (STUs), but the clear skewness and lognormal distribution of STUs demonstrate the utmost endemic nature of many Italian soils. In particular, more than a fourth of STUs belong to Cambisols, more than a half to only four reference soil groups (Cambisols, Luvisols, Regosols, Phaeozems), and 88 % to nine RSGs (the former plus Calcisols, Vertisols, Fluvisols, Leptosols, and Andosols), while the remaining 16 RSGs are represented in 12 % of STUs. A similar trend is depicted by considering single soil profile classification, although a larger number of main soil types are represented as soil profiles than as STUs. In particular, there are profiles classified as Albeluvisol, Anthrosol, Cryosol, Plinthosol, and Technosol of WRB, and Gelisols of Soil Taxonomy, which are not correlated to a STU. Consequently, Ferralsols (Oxisols for Soil Taxonomy) and Durisols are the only main kind of soils that have not yet been found in Italy. Likewise RSGs, the distribution of WRB qualifiers shows an evident concentration in relatively few cases, followed by a long tail. In particular, 138 out of the 180 types foreseen by WRB are represented in Italy. Thus, it is possible to say that in Italy there is about three-quarters of the global pedodiversity. Although the most common qualifiers (that is Calcaric, Haplic, Skeletic, Eutric) are all related to the nature of parent material and to incipient pedogenesis, a second group (namely Chromic,Calcic, Stagnic, and Luvic) indicates the main soil forming mechanisms that typify current Italian pedogenesis.
|Autori:||Costantini, EAC; Barbetti, R; Fantappiè, M; L'Abate, G; Lorenzetti, R; Magini, S|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/14 - Pedologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Tipo:||Monografia o trattato scientifico|
|Tipologia di ateneo:||1c - Capitoli di volumi di ricerca originale (con ISBN) editi da case editrici accreditate che pubblicano anche riviste ISI|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/978-94-007-5642-7_|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03 - Monografia|